Joseph Shared "Review" - 31 Picmonics

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Review

Patau's Syndrome
Trisomy 13
Severe Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Microcephaly
Holoprosencephaly
Microphthalmia
Polydactyly
Cleft lip/cleft palate
Rocker bottom feet
Cystic kidneys
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
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2 mins
Edwards Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Trisomy 18
Signs and Symptoms
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Rocker Bottom Feet
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Clenched Hands
Overlapping Fingers
Low-Set Ears
Micrognathia
Prominent Occiput
Omphalocele
Meckel's Diverticulum
Horseshoe Kidney
Malrotation of Intestines
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2 mins
Down Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Trisomy 21
Meiotic Nondisjunction
Signs and Symptoms
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Simian Crease
Flat Facies
Duodenal Atresia
Hirschsprung's Disease
Septum Primum Type ASD
Endocardial Cushion Defects
Prominent Epicanthal Folds
Increased Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Alzheimer's Disease
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2 mins
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) Overview
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Serotonin and NE Reuptake
Lipid-soluble
Side Effects
Adverse CNS Effects
Anticholinergic
Antihistamine
Tri-C: Convulsion, Coma, Cardiotoxicity
Blocks Alpha1 Receptors
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2 mins
Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA) Antidote
Antidote
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
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26 secs
Vitamin D Mechanism
25 OH in the liver
1,25 OH in the kidney
Absorbs Calcium and Phosphorus
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42 secs
Vitamin D Deficiency
Signs & Symptoms
Rickets in children
Bending bones
Rachitic rosary
Breast milk has decreased vitamin D
Osteomalacia in adults
Tetany from Hypocalcemia
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1 min
Vitamin D Toxicity
Kidney stones
Metastatic calcification of the kidney
Loss of appetite
Abdominal Pain
Sarcoidosis
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1 min
Vitamin K
Sources
Dark Green Leafy Vegetables
Synthesized by Intestinal Flora
Mechanism
Activated by Epoxide Reductase
Gamma Carboxylation of Glutamate
Activation of Clotting Factors II, VII, IX, X, Protein C and S
Considerations
Deficiency with Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
Neonatal Hemorrhage with Increased PT and aPTT
Warfarin is a Vitamin K Antagonist
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4 mins
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Pathophysiology
Decreased phenylalanine hydroxylase
Decreased tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor
Autosomal Recessive
Tyrosine Becomes Essential
Phenylalanine found in Nutrasweet
Symptoms
Musty or mousy body odor
Growth retardation
Seizures
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Hypopigmentation
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2 mins
Maternal Phenylketonuria
Pathophysiology
Lack of Proper Diet During Pregnancy; Like NutraSweet
Signs and Symptoms
Congenital Heart Defects
Growth Retardation
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Microcephaly
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1 min
Turner Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Female (XO)
Short stature
Shield Chest
Cystic Hygroma (Webbing of Neck)
Lymphedema in Hands and Feet
Ovarian Dysgenesis
Streak Ovary
Decreased Estrogen
Increased FSH
Increased LH
Dysgerminoma
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Preductal Coarctation of the Aorta
Horseshoe Kidney
Menopause before Menarche
Amenorrhea
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5 mins
Rheumatic Fever
Pathophysiology
Pharyngeal Infection with Strep Pyogenes (Group A Strep)
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Signs and Symptoms
Aschoff Bodies
Anitschkow's Cells
Early Death Due to Myocarditis
Migratory Polyarthritis
Subcutaneous Nodules
Erythema Marginatum
Chorea
Diagnosis
Elevated ESR
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2 mins
Friedreich's Ataxia
Trinucleotide Repeat
GAA Repeat
Frataxin
Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Autosomal Recessive
Hammertoes
High Arches
Kyphoscoliosis
Lateral Corticospinal Tract
Posterior Column
Spinocerebellar Tract
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
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1 min
Huntington's Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Trinucleotide Repeat
CAG Repeats
Chromosome 4
Anticipation
Caudate
Decrease of ACh
Decrease of GABA
Signs and Symptoms
Chorea
Dementia
Depression
Glutamate Toxicity
Neuronal Death via NMDA Binding
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3 mins
Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis
Pathophysiology
Increased Anion Gap
MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Propylene Glycol
Isoniazid or Iron
Lactic Acid
Ethylene Glycol
Salicylates
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1 min
Normal Gap Metabolic Acidosis
HARD-ASS
Hyperalimentation
Addison's Disease
Renal Tubular Acidosis
Diarrhea
Acetazolamide
Spironolactone
Saline Infusion
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2 mins
Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoventilation
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Barbiturates Depress Central Respiratory Center of Brain
Opioids Depress Central Respiratory Center of the Brain
Airway Obstruction
Respiratory Muscle Weakness/Paralysis
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3 mins
Metabolic Alkalosis
Diuretic use
Vomiting
Antacid
Hyperaldosteronism
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26 secs
Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation
High Altitude
Aspirin
Restrictive Lung Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy
Progesterone
Rib Fracture
Anxiety
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1 min

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