Alex Shared "Ortho/Rheum" - 48 Picmonics

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Ortho/Rheum

Types of Fractures
Nondisplaced
Displaced
Incomplete
Complete
Closed
Open
Direction of Fracture Line
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2 mins
Salter-Harris Fracture Classification
SMACK
Slipped Across Physis (Type 1)
Metaphysis and Physis (Type 2)
Articular-Epiphyseal (Type 3)
Complete Metaphysis and Epiphysis (Type 4)
Krushed Physis (Type 5)
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2 mins
Neurovascular Assessment 6 P's
Pain
Paresthesia
Pulse
Pallor
Pressure
Paralysis
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1 min
Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
Indications
Joint Pain (Uncontrolled)
Impaired Mobility
Considerations
Compression Dressing
Frequent Neurovascular Assessments
Continuous Passive Motion (CPM) Devices
Early Ambulation
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Prophylaxis
Limit Flexion Positions
Monitor for Infection
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2 mins
Herniated Disc (Nucleus Pulposus)
Cause/Mechanism
Spine Trauma
Natural Degeneration
Spinal Stenosis
Assessment
Pain
Weakness
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Interventions
Brace
Medications
Outpatient Procedures
Surgery
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2 mins
Supracondylar Fracture Of Humerus
Mechanism
Fall On Outstretched Hand (FOOSH)
More Common In Children
Signs & Symptoms
Elbow Pain & Swelling
Diagnosis
X-ray Shows Elbow Effusion
Anterior Sail Sign
Posterior Fat Pad Sign
Treatment
Non-displaced: Splint And Sling
Displaced: Closed Reduction With Percutaneous Pin Placement
Considerations
Compartment Syndrome
Volkmann Ischemic Contracture
Brachial Artery Injury
Median Nerve Palsy
Cubitus Varus Deformity
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3 mins
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Median Nerve Entrapment
Compression at Carpal Tunnel
Numbness, Tingling and Pain in Hand
Diagnosis
Phalen's Maneuver
Tinel's Sign
Treatment
Splints
Surgery
Steroids
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2 mins
Anterior Shoulder Dislocation
Axillary Nerve Damage
Axillary Artery
Rotator Cuff Injury
Supraspinatus Tendon
Anterior Glenohumeral Ligament
Anatomic Lesions
Bankart's Lesion
Hill-Sachs Lesion
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1 min
Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Tibial Tubercle Apophysitis)
Pathophysiology
Apophysitis of Tibial Tubercle
Active, Young Boys
Running and Jumping
Overuse Injury
Recent Growth Spurt
Signs and Symptoms
Diagnosis Made on History
Anterior Knee Pain
Enlarged Tibial Tubercle
Edema
Treatment
Rest
NSAIDs
Activity Restriction
Self-limiting
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2 mins
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)
Pathophysiology
Young Female Athletes
Runners
Overuse Injury
Idiopathic Patellar & Retinacular Pain
Signs & Symptoms
Chronic Anterior Knee Pain
Increased with Squatting or Running
Increased with Prolonged Sitting or Climbing Stairs
Diagnosis
Patellofemoral Compression Test
Apprehension Sign
Treatment
NSAIDs
Conservative Therapy
Bracing
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3 mins
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)
Pathophysiology
Separation of Femoral Epiphysis from Femoral Neck
Through Growth Plate (Physeal Plate)
Obesity
Male Adolescents
African American
Growth and Sex Hormone Imbalances
Signs & Symptoms
Thigh or Knee Pain
Inability to Bear Weight
Decreased Internal Rotation of Hip
Obligate External Rotation of Hip with Flexion
Diagnosis
Frog Leg Lateral X-ray
Treatment
Surgical Pinning
Complications
Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head
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3 mins
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
Pathophysiology
Idiopathic Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head
Boys 5-7 Years of Age
Symptoms < 18 Months
Signs & Symptoms
Painless Limp
Limited Range of Motion
Intermittent Anterior Thigh Pain
Insidious Pain in Knee
Atrophy of Upper Thigh
Diagnosis
AP and Frog Leg Lateral X-ray
Compression and Deformity of Femoral Head
Treatment
Bed Rest
NSAIDs
Containment with Brace or Cast
Surgery
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4 mins
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
Cause
Abnormal Femoral Head in Acetabulum
Newborn Assessment
Positive Barlow Sign
Clicking with Adduction
Positive Ortolani Sign
Clicking with Abduction
Asymmetrical Limb Lengths and Folds (Gluteal and Thigh)
Older Child Assessment
Trendelenburg Sign
Interventions
Abduction Device
Pavlik Harness
Closed Reduction
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3 mins
MCL Tear
Mechanism
Medial Knee Injury
Unhappy Triad
Football
Skiing
Sign
Valgus Stress Test
Treatment
Conservative Management
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53 secs
ACL Tear
Mechanism
Non-contact
Popping
Sudden Stop
Change in Direction
Unhappy Triad
Sign
Lachman Test
Treatment
Reconstruction if Severe
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1 min
Meniscus Tear
Fibrocartilage Semicircular Band
Traumatic
Unhappy Triad
Degenerative
Symptoms
Clicking and Locking
McMurray Test
Pain on External Rotation
Treatment
Conservative Management
Surgery
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1 min
Osteosarcoma
Pathophysiology
Osteogenic Sarcoma
Peak incidence men 10-20 years old
Metaphysis of Long Bones
Knee Region
Radiation
Familial Retinoblastoma
Paget's Disease
Diagnosis
Codman Triangle
Sunburst Pattern from Elevated Periosteum
Grave Prognosis
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2 mins
Chondrosarcoma
Pathophysiology
Cartilaginous tumor
Malignant
Men 30-60 years old
Pelvic and femur bones
Signs & Symptoms
Glistening mass in medullary cavity
Can be primary in origin or from osteochondroma
Metastasize to lungs
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1 min
Ewing's Sarcoma
Epidemiology
Most Common in Boys < 15 years old
Pathophysiology
11;22 Translocation
Characteristics
Long bones, Pelvis, Ribs
Diaphysis
Small Blue Cells
Malignant
Aggressive
Onion-skin Appearance
TREATMENT
Responsive to Chemotherapy
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2 mins
Giant Cell Tumor
Pathophysiology
Osteoclastoma
Epiphyseal End of Long Bones
Peak Incidence 20-40 Years
Benign
Knee Region
Diagnosis
Soap Bubble Appearance on X-ray
Spindle-shaped Cells
Multinucleated Giant Cells
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46 secs

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