Melissa Shared "Electrolytes" - 22 Picmonics

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Electrolytes

Hypokalemia
Assessment
< 3.5 mEq/L
Muscle Weakness
Arrhythmia
U Wave
Ileus
Hyporeflexia
Interventions
IV K+ Infusion at 5-10 mEq/hr
Give Orally with Food
Nursing Considerations
Monitor Respiratory Status
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3 mins
Normal Electrolyte Lab Values
Potassium (K+)
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Calcium (Ca2+)
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
Phosphate (PO43–)
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
Magnesium (Mg2+)
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
Sodium (Na+)
135 to 145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl)
95 to 105 mEq/L
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2 mins
Hypernatremia
Assessment
> 145 mEq/L Na+
Change in LOC
Extreme Thirst
Orthostatic Hypotension
Dry Flushed Skin
Muscle Twitching
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Prevent Dehydration
Hypotonic Solutions (0.225% or 0.45% NaCl)
Sodium Restriction
Diuretics
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2 mins
Hyponatremia
Assessment
< 135 mEq Na+
Nausea and Vomiting
Decreased LOC
Confusion / Lethargy
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Assess Airway
Reduce Diuretic Dosage
Fluid Excess Hyponatremia
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Fluid Restriction
Fluid Deficit Hyponatremia
Hypertonic Solution (3% or 5% NaCl)
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2 mins
Hyperkalemia
Assessment
> 5.0 mEq/L K+
Abdominal Cramps
Muscle Weakness
Diarrhea
Arrhythmia
Tall, Peaked T Waves
Interventions
IV Calcium
Infusion of Glucose and Insulin
Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
Kayexalate
Dialysis
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Hypercalcemia
Assessment
> 10.5 mg/dL Ca2+
Pathologic Fractures
Lethargy
Hypercoagulation
Constipation
ECG Changes
QT Shortening
Interventions
No Calcium Intake
Chelating Drugs
Calcitonin
Bisphosphonates
Loop Diuretics instead of Thiazide Diuretics
Considerations
Increased Risk for Renal Calculi
Increase Fluids
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3 mins
Hypocalcemia
Assessment
< 8.5 mg/dL Ca2+
Decreased Bone Density
Muscle Spasms
Tetany
Chvostek's Sign
Trousseau's Sign
Increased DTR
ECG Changes
QT Prolongation
Considerations
Oral and IV Replacement of Ca2+
Seizure Precautions
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2 mins
Potassium (K+) Lab Value
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
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20 secs
Sodium (Na+) Lab Value
135-145 mEq/L
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24 secs
Chloride (Cl-) Lab Value
95-105 mEq/L
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27 secs
Calcium (Ca2+) Lab Value
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
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25 secs
Phosphate (PO43-) Lab Value
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
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29 secs
Magnesium (Mg2+) Lab Value
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
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28 secs
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Lab Values
10-20 mg/dL
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40 secs
Creatinine Lab Values
Measures Renal Function
0.6 - 1.3 mg/dL
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1 min
Blood Glucose Lab Value
70-100 mg/dL
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25 secs
Metabolic Alkalosis
Diuretic use
Vomiting
Antacid
Hyperaldosteronism
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26 secs
Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation
High Altitude
Aspirin
Restrictive Lung Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy
Progesterone
Rib Fracture
Anxiety
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1 min
Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoventilation
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Barbiturates Depress Central Respiratory Center of Brain
Opioids Depress Central Respiratory Center of the Brain
Airway Obstruction
Respiratory Muscle Weakness/Paralysis
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3 mins
Metabolic Alkalosis Interventions
Interventions
Treat Underlying Cause
Stop Potassium (K+) Wasting Diuretics
Spironolactone
Acetazolamide
IV Fluids
Sodium Chloride
Replace Potassium (K+)
Considerations
Monitor Respiratory Rate
Monitor Heart Rate
Seizure Precautions
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2 mins

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