Matthew Shared "Behavioral Sciences" - 21 Picmonics

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Behavioral Sciences

Sensitivity
Characteristics
Rules Out
Screening Test
Formula
TP / (FN+TP)
2 mins
Specificity
Characteristics
Rules In
Confirmatory Test
Formula
TN / (TN + FP)
1 min
Case Control Study
Observational
Retrospective
Compares those with disease to those without
Measurement
Odds Ratio
47 secs
Cohort Study
Observational
Longitudinal
Studies risk from exposure
Retrospective
Prospective
1 min
Cross-Sectional Study
Observational
Data at One Specific Point in Time
(Finds) Frequency of Disease
Measurement
Prevalence
49 secs
Quantifying Risk: Contingency 2x2 Table Setup
Disease
Along Top (x axis)
Exposure
Along Side (y axis)
A: Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
B: Exposed and Healthy
C: Not Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
D: Not Exposed and Healthy
2 mins
Odds Ratio (OR)
Use
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Formula
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
Interpretation
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
2 mins
Attributable Risk (AR)
Use
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Formula
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Minus -
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
1 min
Relative Risk (RR)
Use
Used in Cohort Studies
Formula
Risk of Developing Disease
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
2 mins
Positive Predictive Value (PPV)
Proportion of Positive Tests that are True Positive
Probability that Person with Positive Test has Disease
Formula
TP (True Positives)
Divided by /
All Positive Test Results
TP + FP
Considerations
Varies Directly with Prevalence
1 min
Negative Predictive Value (NPV)
Proportion of Negative Tests that are Truly Negative
Probability that Person with Negative Test is Healthy
Formula
(TN) True Negatives
Divided by /
All Negative Test Results
(FN + TN)
Considerations
Varies Inversely with Prevalence
1 min
Age 2 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Fine Motor
Tracks Objects to the Midline
Language
Coos
Social / Cognitive
Social Smile
Recognizes Parents
1 min
Age 4 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Sits With Support
Rooting Reflex Disappears
Moro Reflex Disappears
Fine Motor
Reaches Across Midline
Language
Turns to Voice
Laughs
Social / Cognitive
Enjoys Looking Around
2 mins
Age 6 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Palmar Reflex Disappears
Sits Propped Up On Hands
Rolls
Fine Motor
Transfers Objects Hands to Hands
Raking Grasp
Language
Babbles
Responds to Name
Social / Cognitive
Stranger Anxiety Develops
2 mins
Age 9 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Pulls to Stand
Starts Cruising
Fine Motor
Three-Finger Pincer Grasp
Holds Bottle or Cup
Language
Social / Cognitive
Waves Bye
Separation Anxiety
Plays Pat-A-Cake
2 mins
Age 1 Year - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Stands Well
First Steps
Throws Ball
Points to Objects
Babinski Reflex Disappears
Fine Motor
Two-Finger Pincer Grasp
Language
Social / Cognitive
One-Step Commands with Gesture
2 mins
Age 18 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Climbs Up Stairs
Runs
Fine Motor
Stacks Three Blocks
Eats with Spoon
Removes Clothing
Language
10-25 Word Vocabulary
Social / Cognitive
“Mine”
Pretend Play
2 mins
Age 2 Years - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Jumps
Fine Motor
Copies a Line
Stacks Six Blocks
Turns Pages
Language
Two-Word Phrases
Half of Speech is Understandable
200 Words by Age 2
Social / Cognitive
Parallel Play
Begins Toilet Training
Rapprochement
2 mins
Age 3 Years - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Walks Up/Down Steps with Alternating Feet
Rides Tricycle
Fine Motor
Stack Nine Block Tower
Copies Circle
Uses Utensils
Language
Three-Word Sentences
75% Speech Understood by Stranger
Social / Cognitive
Knows Gender / Age
2 mins
Age 4 Years - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Hop on One Foot
Fine Motor
Copies Square
Uses Fork Well
Language
100% Speech Understandable
Identifies Colors
Social/ Cognitive
Cooperative Play
Imaginary Friends
2 mins