Joel Shared "HODOR" - 141 Picmonics

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

HODOR

Achalasia
Pathophysiology
Failure to Relax Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Malignancies
Chagas Disease
Loss of Auerbach Plexus
Symptoms
Dysphagia to Solids & Liquids
Diagnosis
Barium Swallow
Bird's Beak Appearance
Manometry
Risk Factors
Increased Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Acute Gastritis
Erosive
Disruption of Mucosal Barrier
Caused by Stress
NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
Alcohol
Uremia
Burns
Curling's Ulcer
Brain Injury
Cushing Ulcer
Increase H+ Production
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Barrett's Esophagus
Histological findings
Metaplasia in Lower Esophagus
Columnar Epithelium
Associated Pathologies
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Esophagitis
Esophageal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Boerhaave Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Esophageal Rupture
Increased Esophageal Pressure while Vomiting
Lower 1/3 of Esophagus
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Odynophagia
Subcutaneous Emphysema
Management
Shock
Surgical Emergency
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Causes
Pregnancy and Postpartum
Hematologic Disorders
Tumors
Chronic Infections
Mechanism
Thrombosis of Major Hepatic Veins
Centrilobular Congestion and Necrosis
Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Ascites
Hepatomegaly
Nutmeg Liver
picmonic thumbnail
3 mins
Carcinoid Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Neuroendocrine Cells
Serotonin
Appendix
Diagnosis
Chromogranin A
Neuron Specific Enolase
Dense Core Bodies on EM
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms When Metastasize to Liver
Flushing
Wheezing
Right Heart Murmur
Diarrhea
picmonic thumbnail
4 mins
Chronic Gastritis
Type A
Type A
Fundus and Body
Autoimmune
Autoantibodies to Parietal Cells
Pernicious Anemia
Achlorhydria
Type B
Type B
Most Common Type
Helicobacter pylori
Antrum
Increased Risk of MALT Lymphoma
Associations
HIV/AIDS
Crohn's Disease
picmonic thumbnail
3 mins
Colorectal Cancer Assessment
3rd Most Common Cancer
Assessment
Change in Bowel Habits
Bowel Obstruction
Rectal Bleeding
Anemia
Weight Loss
Ascites
Considerations
Colonoscopy
FOBT and FIT
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Crohn's Disease Assessment
Diarrhea
5-6 per day
Cramping Abdominal Pain
Fever
Weight Loss
Malabsorption
Anemia
Complications
Obstruction
Fistulas
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Crohn's Disease Characteristics
Terminal Ileum and Colon
Rectal Sparing
Transmural Inflammation
Granulomas
Skip Lesions
Cobblestone Mucosa
Fissures
Fistulas
Perianal Disease
Creeping Fat
Lymphoid Aggregates
String Sign on Barium Swallow
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Crohn's Symptoms and Associations
Diarrhea
Malabsorption
Bile-Wasting
Pigment Gallstones
Oxalate Kidney Stones
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Erythema Nodosum
Uveitis
Migratory Polyarthritis
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
GI Absorption
Stomach
Alcohol
Duodenum
Iron
Jejunum
Folate
Terminal Ileum
Vitamin B12
Bile Resorption
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Hirschsprung Disease
Failure of Neuronal Crest Cell Migration
Involves Rectum
Lack of Auerbach and Meissner Plexus
Chronic Constipation
Failure to Pass Meconium
Congenital Megacolon
Increased Risk with Down Syndrome
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Mallory-Weiss
Characteristics
Bleeding From Tears in Mucosa
Forceful Vomiting
Alcoholism
Eating Disorders (Bulimia)
Painful Hematemesis
Diagnosis
Endoscopy
Management
Observation
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Meckel's Diverticulum
Pathophysiology
True Diverticulum
Vitelline Duct
Yolk Stalk
Contain Ectopic Tissue
Pancreatic And Gastric Mucosa
Signs and Symptoms
Hemorrhage
Intussusceptions
Volvulus
Diagnosis
2 Feet From Ileocecal Valve
2 Inches Long
2% Population
First 2 Years Of Life
Pertechnetate T99
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
Mechanism and Characteristics
Symptomatic Age: 10-30 Years
LKB1/STK11 Gene Mutation
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Benign GI Hamartomatous Polyps
Mucocutaneous Hyperpigmentation
Positive Family History
Increased Risk of Colorectal Carcinoma
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Small Intestine Digestion
Brush border enzymes
Pancreatic Enzymes are secreted via a Duct
Pancreas secretes bicarbonate
Brush Border activates Pancreatic Trypsin
Trypsin activates Chymotrypsin
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin digest Proteins
Gallbladder Releases Bile
Pancreatic Lipase breaks down Lipids
Goblet cells secrete mucus
Pancreatic Amylase breaks down Carbohydrates
Pancreatic Nucleases breakdown DNA/RNA
Digestion occurs in the Duodenum
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Stomach Digestion
Characteristics
Chief Cells Secrete Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen Turned to Pepsin By H+
Protein Breakdown Begins
Mucous Cells Secrete Mucus and Bicarbonate
G Cells Secrete Gastrin
Gastrin Stimulates Parietal Cell HCl Release
Parietal Cells Secrete Intrinsic Factor
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Ulcerative Colitis Associations
Associations
Toxic Megacolon
Colorectal Carcinoma
Anterior Uveitis
Pyoderma Gangrenosum
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
P-ANCA
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Ulcerative Colitis Characteristics
Autoimmune
Mucosal and Submucosal Only
Rectal Involvement
Stepwise Lesions
Friable Pseudopolyp
Crypt Abscess
Loss of Haustra
Lead Pipe Appearance
Bloody Diarrhea
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins

Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,180,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.

It's worth every penny