Peter Shared "Respiratory" - 311 Picmonics

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Respiratory

Respiratory Anatomy
Characteristics
Nasal Cavity
Hair Filters
Mucus Filters and Moistens
Capillaries Warm
Pharynx (Throat)
Larynx (Voice Box)
Cilia Expel Mucus and Dust
Trachea
Bronchi
Alveoli
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2 mins
Alveolar Gas Exchange
Characteristics
Pulmonary Artery Blood is O2-Poor, CO2-Rich
Two-Cell Thick Air-Blood Barrier
CO2 Diffuses Into Air
O2 Diffuses Into Blood
Gases Equilibrate
Pulmonary Vein is O2-Rich, CO2-Poor
Thermoregulation
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2 mins
A-a Gradient
Partial pressure of alveolar oxygen (PAO2)
Partial Pressure of Arterial O2 (PaO2)
Normal 10 to 15 mmHg
Hypoxemia with an Abnormal A-a Gradient
Diffusion problem
Shunting (Low V/Q)
Dead space (high V/Q)
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1 min
Physiologic Dead Space (VD)
Tidal Volume (VT)
Partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2)
Partial pressure of CO2 in expired air (PECO2)
VD = TV x (PaCO2-PECO2) / PaCO2
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2 mins
-pnea
Meaning
Breath
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35 secs
-ptysis
Meaning
Spitting
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38 secs
Aer/o
Meaning
Air or Gas
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26 secs
Alveol/o
meaning
Air Sac, Small Sac, or Alveolus
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33 secs
Byssin/o
meaning
Cotton Dust
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30 secs
Hal/o or Halit/o
meaning
Breath
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30 secs
Rhin/o
Meaning
Nose
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32 secs
Rhonc/o
Meaning
Snoring
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21 secs
Autonomic Nervous System
Characteristics
Sympathetic Nervous System
Fight or Flight
All Preganglionic Neurons Release Acetylcholine
Sympathetic Postganglionic Neurons Release Norepinephrine
Antagonistic Effects of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Rest and Digest
Parasympathetic Postganglionic Neurons Release Acetylcholine
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2 mins
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Cause/Mechanism
Narrowed or Obstructed Air Passage
Assessment
Apnea
Loud Snoring
Startle Response
Daytime Drowsiness
Interventions
Positional Therapy
Oral Appliance
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
Surgery
Considerations
Weight Loss
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3 mins
Blood Acid-Base Control
Characteristics
In a State of Acidemia
Medullary Chemoreceptors Control Ventilation Rate
Expulsion of CO2 through Lungs Increases pH
Bicarbonate Reabsorption from the Kidney Increases pH
Kidney Excretion of H+ Increases pH
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2 mins
Alveolar Gas Equation
Equation
Partial Pressure of Alveolar Oxygen (PAO2)
Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Inspired Air (PIO2)
PIO2 Normally Approximated = 150 mmHg
Arterial Partial Pressure of CO2 (PaCO2)
Respiratory Quotient (R)
R Normally Approximated = 0.8
PAO2 = PIO2 - (PaCO2/R)
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1 min
Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoventilation
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Barbiturates Depress Central Respiratory Center of Brain
Opioids Depress Central Respiratory Center of the Brain
Airway Obstruction
Respiratory Muscle Weakness/Paralysis
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3 mins
Respiratory Acidosis Interventions
Improve Respiration
Pharmacologic Interventions
Bronchodilators
Respiratory Stimulants
Drug Antagonists
Nonpharmacologic Interventions
Oxygen
Assisted Ventilation
Prevent Complications
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1 min
Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation
High Altitude
Aspirin
Restrictive Lung Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy
Progesterone
Rib Fracture
Anxiety
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1 min
Respiratory Alkalosis Interventions
Treat Underlying Cause
Mechanically Ventilated Patients
Decrease Tidal Volume and/or Respiratory Rate
Give Adequate Pain Control and Sedation
Hyperventilation Syndrome
Rebreathing into Paper Bag
Sedatives
Antidepressants
Considerations
Compensatory Drop in Serum Bicarbonate
Correct CO2 Slowly
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2 mins

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