Alex Shared "2015 study guide musculoskeletal" - 26 Picmonics

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2015 study guide musculoskeletal

Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Decreased Type I Collagen Production
Symptoms
Phenotypically Diverse
Brittle Bone Disease
Fractures from Minimal Trauma
Confused with Child Abuse
Hearing Loss
Dental Imperfections
Blue Sclera
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1 min
Osteoporosis Assessment
Highest Risk
Postmenopausal Women
Long Term Corticosteroids
Assessment
Kyphosis
Dowager's Hump
Loss of Height
Back Pain
Pathologic Fractures
Spinal Compression Fracture
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1 min
Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Assessment
Hypercalcemia
Kidney Stones
Osteoporosis
Arrhythmias
Diagnostic Tests
Increased Calcium and Decreased Phosphorus
Considerations
Prevent Injury
Medication Education
Surgery
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1 min
Osteosarcoma
Pathophysiology
Osteogenic Sarcoma
Peak incidence men 10-20 years old
Metaphysis of Long Bones
Knee Region
Radiation
Familial Retinoblastoma
Paget's Disease
Diagnosis
Codman Triangle
Sunburst Pattern from Elevated Periosteum
Grave Prognosis
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2 mins
Giant Cell Tumor
Pathophysiology
Osteoclastoma
Epiphyseal End of Long Bones
Peak Incidence 20-40 Years
Benign
Knee Region
Diagnosis
Soap Bubble Appearance on X-ray
Spindle-shaped Cells
Multinucleated Giant Cells
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46 secs
Chondrosarcoma
Pathophysiology
Cartilaginous tumor
Malignant
Men 30-60 years old
Pelvic and femur bones
Signs & Symptoms
Glistening mass in medullary cavity
Can be primary in origin or from osteochondroma
Metastasize to lungs
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1 min
Ewing's Sarcoma
Epidemiology
Most Common in Boys < 15 years old
Pathophysiology
11;22 Translocation
Characteristics
Long bones, Pelvis, Ribs
Diaphysis
Small Blue Cells
Malignant
Aggressive
Onion-skin Appearance
TREATMENT
Responsive to Chemotherapy
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2 mins
Multiple Myeloma Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Monoclonal Plasma Cell Cancer
Clock Face Chromatin
Diagnosis
M Spike on Protein Electrophoresis
Increased IgG and IgA
Fried Egg Appearance (BM Biopsy)
Rouleaux Formation
Stacked RBC's
Bence Jones Protein
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2 mins
Multiple Myeloma Signs and Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Increased Susceptibility to Infection
Back/Bone Pain
Punched Out Lytic Bone Lesions
Hypercalcemia
Primary Amyloidosis
Renal Insufficiency
Anemia
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2 mins
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Chromosome 17
Signs and Symptoms
Neurofibromas
Optic Glioma
Lisch Nodules
Hamartomas
Cafe Au Lait Spots
Scoliosis
Pheochromocytoma
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4 mins
Rheumatoid Arthritis Assessment
Mechanism
Destruction of Connective Tissue and Synovial Membrane
Signs and Symptoms
Inflammation of Joints
Morning Stiffness
Nodules
Joint Deformities
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1 min
TNF-Alpha Inhibitors Overview
Mechanism
Downregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines
Decreased lymphocyte activation and migration
Granuloma breakdown
Treats
Crohn's Disease
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Psoriasis
Ankylosing spondylitis
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1 min
TNF-Alpha Inhibitor Drugs and Complications
Etanercept
Decoy TNF- Alpha receptor
Anti-TNF- Alpha antibody
Adalimumab
Infliximab
Complications
Increased risk of infection
Predispose to Tuberculosis (TB) reactivation
Order Baseline PPD- skin test
Quantiferon Gold In-Tube
Order Chest X-Ray
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2 mins
HLA-B27 Associations
Associations
PAIR Acronym
Psoriatic Arthritis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Reiter's Syndrome
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1 min
Sjögren’s Syndrome
Mechanism
Autoimmune Exocrine Gland Destruction
Symptoms (Classic Triad)
Xerostomia
Xerophthalmia
Arthritis
Diagnosis
Anti SS-B (La)
Anti SS-A (Ro)
Schirmer's Test
Salivary Gland Biopsy
Treatment
Symptomatic Treatment
Complications
Lymphoma
Other
Sicca Syndrome
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4 mins
Schwannoma
Characteristics
Acoustic Schwannoma
Cranial Nerve VIII
Cerebellopontine Angle
S100 Positive
Bilateral Schwannoma in Neurofibromatosis Type 2
Tinnitus
Cranial Nerve V
Affects Corneal Reflex
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2 mins
Hemangioblastoma
Most often cerebellar
Associated with Von Hippel-Lindau
Retinal Angiomas
Can produce EPO
Secondary polycythemia
Foamy cells
High vascularity
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58 secs
Rheumatoid Arthritis Interventions
Lifestyle Modifications
Heat and Cold Applications
Therapeutic Exercise
Balance Rest and Activity
Drug Therapy
NSAIDs
DMARDs
Glucocorticoids
Considerations
PT/OT
Reconstructive Joint Surgery
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2 mins
Osteoarthritis
Mechanism
Articular Cartilage Destruction
Biomechanical Stress
Aging
Signs and Symptoms
Asymmetric
Pain Decreases with Rest
Morning Stiffness Under 30 Minutes
Crepitus
DIP and PIP Joints
Treatment
Lifestyle Changes
Acetaminophen or NSAIDs
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1 min
Sarcoidosis Symptoms
Black Females
Symptoms
Asymptomatic
Uveitis
Interstitial Fibrosis
Erythema Nodosum
Hepatomegaly
Myocardial Sarcoidosis
Lupus Pernio
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1 min

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