Lauren Shared "Hematology/Oncology" - 62 Picmonics

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Hematology/Oncology

Beta Thalassemia
Mechanism
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Mediterranean Populations
Decreased Beta-Globin
Beta-Thalassemia Minor
Increased HbA2
No Intervention
Beta-thalassemia Major
Blood Transfusions
Hemochromatosis
Crew-cut on Skull X-Ray
Diagnosis
Electrophoresis
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2 mins
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Pathophysiology
Bleeding state
Activation of clotting factors
Deficiency of clotting factors
Causes
Sepsis
Trauma
Obstetric complications
Acute Pancreatitis
Malignancy
Nephrotic Syndrome
Transfusion
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2 mins
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Assessment
Mechanism
Improper Initiation of Clotting Cascade
Signs and Symptoms
Systemic Bleeding
Petechiae, Purpura, Ecchymosis
Change in LOC
Increased PT and PTT
Cyanosis
Increased Fibrin Degradation Products (FDP)
Decreased Platelets and Fibrinogen
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2 mins
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Interventions
Complications
Risk for Shock
Renal Failure
Interventions
Treat Underlying Cause
Manage Bleeding
Maintain Fluid and Hemodynamic Balance
Transfusion
Oxygenation
Heparin Drip
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2 mins
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Children
Pathophysiology
Preceded by Acute Diarrheal Illness
Endothelial Damage
Classic Triad of Symptoms
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia (MAHA)
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Failure
Labs
Helmet cells
LDH
Treatment
Dialysis
Supportive
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2 mins
Hemophilia
Cause/Mechanism
Genetic Mutation
Assessment
Prolonged Bleeding
Pain
Hemarthrosis
Interventions
Clotting Factor Replacement Therapy
DDAVP (Desmopressin Acetate)
Antifibrinolytic Therapy
Analgesics
Considerations
Genetic Counseling
Prevent Injury
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3 mins
Hereditary Spherocytosis Diagnosis & Treatment
Labs
Increased MCHC
Spherocytes
Normocytic Anemia
Diagnosis
Osmotic Fragility Test
Treatment
Splenectomy
Folic Acid
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1 min
Hereditary Spherocytosis Disease
Northern Europeans
Mechanisms
Autosomal Dominant
Spectrin/Ankyrin Deficiency
Spherocyte Formation
Hemolytic Anemia
Symptoms
Bilirubin Gallstones
Jaundice
Splenomegaly
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3 mins
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Causes
Malnutrition/Malabsorption
Hemorrhage
Signs
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Decreased Heme Synthesis
Labs
Decreased Reticulocytes
Decreased Ferritin
Increased Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
Poikilocytosis
Anisocytosis
Increased Central Pallor
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2 mins
Macrocytic Anemia Causes
MCV > 100
Megaloblastic
B12 Deficiency
Folate Deficiency
Orotic Aciduria
Non Megaloblastic
Alcoholism
Liver Disease
Reticulocytosis
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2 mins
Microcytic Anemia Causes
MCV < 80
Causes
Thalassemias
Chronic Disease or Illness
Lead Toxicity
Late Iron Deficiency
Sideroblastic Anemia
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1 min
Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia Causes
Intrinsic Hemolytic
Hereditary Spherocytosis
RBC Enzyme Deficiency
Hemoglobin C Defect
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Sickle Cell Anemia
Extrinsic Hemolytic
Autoimmune
Microangiopathic
Mechanical Destruction
Prosthetic Cardiac Valves
Infection
Snake Venom
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2 mins
Normocytic Nonhemolytic Anemia Causes
MCV 80-100
Nonhemolytic
Anemia of Chronic Disease/Inflammation
Aplastic Anemia
Chronic Kidney Disease
Early Iron Deficiency
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1 min
Protein C or S Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Inability to Inactivate Factor Va and VIIIa
Symptoms
Hypercoagulable State
Recurrent DVTs or DVTs at Young Age
Treatment
Begin Heparin
Slowly Bridge to Warfarin
Hemorrhagic Skin Necrosis
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Management)
Long Term Treatment
Hydroxyurea
Bone Marrow Transplant
Folate
Acute Treatment
Exchange Transfusion
Prophylaxis
Penicillin Prophylaxis
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1 min
Sickle Cell Anemia (Mechanism)
Intrinsic Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia
Point Mutation
Autosomal Recessive
African-American
Dehydration or Decreased O2
Newborns Asymptomatic
Heterozygote Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Signs and Complications)
Signs
Crew-cut on Skull X-ray
Complications
Auto-splenectomy
Painful Crisis
Aplastic Crisis
Splenic-sequestration Crisis
Hyper-hemolytic Syndrome
Renal Papillary Necrosis
Salmonella osteomyelitis
Pulmonary Hypertension
Hyposthenuria
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2 mins
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Inhibition or deficiency of ADAMTS 13
vWF Multimers are not degraded
Microthrombi (and Emboli)
Symptoms
FAT RN Pentad
Fever
Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Dysfunction
Neurologic Abnormalities (Altered Mental status)
Treatment
Plasmapheresis
Corticosteroids
Splenectomy
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2 mins
Vitamin K
Sources
Dark Green Leafy Vegetables
Synthesized by Intestinal Flora
Mechanism
Activated by Epoxide Reductase
Gamma Carboxylation of Glutamate
Activation of Clotting Factors II, VII, IX, X, Protein C and S
Considerations
Deficiency with Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
Neonatal Hemorrhage with Increased PT and aPTT
Warfarin is a Vitamin K Antagonist
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4 mins
Von Willebrand Disease
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorder
Mechanism
Autosomal Dominant Condition Leading to Reduced vWF
Defect in platelet plug formation
Labs
Increased Bleeding Time
PTT increased
Factor VIII decreased
Normal platelet count
Treatment
DDAVP (synthetic vasopressin)
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1 min

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