Petter Shared "Blood and Lymph" - 52 Picmonics

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Blood and Lymph

Babesia
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ixodes Tick
Same vector as Borrelia
Northeastern US
Asplenia
Signs and Symptoms
Fever
Hemolytic Anemia
Diagnosis
Blood Smear
Maltese Cross
Treatments
Atovaquone
Azithromycin
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3 mins
Beta Thalassemia
Mechanism
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Mediterranean Populations
Decreased Beta-Globin
Beta-Thalassemia Minor
Increased HbA2
No Intervention
Beta-thalassemia Major
Blood Transfusions
Hemochromatosis
Crew-cut on Skull X-Ray
Diagnosis
Electrophoresis
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2 mins
Anemia Lab Values
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Serum Iron Decreased
Transferrin Increased
Ferritin Decreased
% Transferrin Saturation Decreased
Pregnancy and OCP Use
Serum Iron Normal
Transferrin Increased
Ferritin Normal
% Transferrin Saturation Decreased
Anemia of Chronic Disease
Serum Iron Decreased
Transferrin Decreased
Ferritin Increased
% Transferrin Saturation Decreased or Normal
Hemochromatosis
Serum Iron Increased
Transferrin Decreased
Ferritin Increased
% Transferrin Saturation Increased
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3 mins
Hereditary Spherocytosis Disease
Northern Europeans
Mechanisms
Autosomal Dominant
Spectrin/Ankyrin Deficiency
Spherocyte Formation
Hemolytic Anemia
Symptoms
Bilirubin Gallstones
Jaundice
Splenomegaly
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3 mins
Folate Deficiency
Clinical Features
Macrocytic Anemia
Megaloblastic Anemia
Etiologies
Malabsorption
Dietary
Tea and Toast
Alcoholics
Medication-induced
Methotrexate
Trimethoprim
Increased Requirement
Hemolytic Anemia
Pregnancy
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2 mins
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Causes
Malnutrition/Malabsorption
Hemorrhage
Signs
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Decreased Heme Synthesis
Labs
Decreased Reticulocytes
Decreased Ferritin
Increased Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
Poikilocytosis
Anisocytosis
Increased Central Pallor
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Mechanism)
Intrinsic Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia
Point Mutation
Autosomal Recessive
African-American
Dehydration or Decreased O2
Newborns Asymptomatic
Heterozygote Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Coagulation Cascade
Secondary Hemostasis
Intrinsic Pathway
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
Heparin
Extrinsic Pathway
Prothrombin Time (PT)
Warfarin
Common Pathway
Thrombin
Convert Fibrinogen to Fibrin
Stabilizes the Platelet Plug
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2 mins
Von Willebrand Disease
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorder
Mechanism
Autosomal Dominant Condition Leading to Reduced vWF
Defect in platelet plug formation
Labs
Increased Bleeding Time
PTT increased
Factor VIII decreased
Normal platelet count
Treatment
DDAVP (synthetic vasopressin)
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1 min
Heparin Mechanisms
Mechanism of Action
Short Half-life
Antithrombin Activation Cofactor
Decrease Thrombin, Factor Xa
Side Effects
Bleeding
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Antidote
Protamine Sulfate
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2 mins
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Pathophysiology
Bleeding state
Activation of clotting factors
Deficiency of clotting factors
Causes
Sepsis
Trauma
Obstetric complications
Acute Pancreatitis
Malignancy
Nephrotic Syndrome
Transfusion
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2 mins
Plasmodium General
Characteristics
Protozoa
Malaria
Anopheles Mosquito
Signs and Symptoms
Cyclic Fever
Headache
Anemia
Splenomegaly
Diagnosis
Blood Smear
Treatment
Chloroquine
Mefloquine for Resistant Types
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3 mins
Plasmodium Specific
Malariae
Fever Every Three Days
Vivax/Ovale
Fever Every Two Days
Duffy Antigen Binding Site
Duffy often absent in Black Population
Primaquine treats dormant form in liver
Falciparum
Most severe
Irregular Cycles
Occludes capillaries in the brain, kidneys, and lungs
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4 mins
G6PD Deficiency
X-linked Recessive
Hemolytic Anemia
Inflammatory Response
Fava Beans
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Anti TB Drugs
Heinz Bodies
Bite Cells
Prevalent Among African Americans due to Increased Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
NRTIs (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Indications
HIV
Pregnancy and Prophylaxis given ZDV
Mechanism
Inhibit Nucleotide Binding to Reverse Transcriptase
Chain Termination
Require Phosphorylation
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1 min
HAART
HIV
Begin at Diagnosis
3 Drugs
2 NRTIs (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
And one of the following:
NNRTI (Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor)
or Protease Inhibitor
or Integrase Inhibitor
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2 mins
NNRTI Drug Names
Nevirapine (Viramune)
Rilpivirine (Edurant)
Delavirdine (DLV, Rescriptor)
Efavirenz (EFV, Sustiva)
Etravirine (ETR, Intelence)
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54 secs
NNRTIs (Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Indications
HIV
Mechanism
Do Not Require Intracellular Metabolism
Inhibits Reverse Transcriptase
Side Effects
Rash
Hepatotoxicity
Vivid Dreams and CNS Symptoms
Contraindication
Pregnancy
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2 mins
HIV Prophylaxis Medications
CD4+ < 200
TMP-SMX
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
CD4+ < 100 Susceptible to Toxoplasma Gondii
CD4+ < 50
Mycobacterium Avium and Intracellulare
Azithromycin If Delayed Therapy
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2 mins
Fusion Inhibitors
Indications
HIV
Drugs
Maraviroc
Binds CCR-5 on T Cells
Blocks Interaction with gp120
Enfuvirtide
Binds gp41
Inhibits Viral Entry
Side Effects
Skin Reactions at Injection Sites (Enfuvirtide)
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2 mins

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