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Kennedy Shared "Glaucoma, Conjuntivitis, OM" - 28 Picmonics

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Glaucoma, Conjuntivitis, OM

Nonselective Beta-Blockers
"-olol" Suffix
Nonselective
Propranolol
Timolol
Nadolol
Partial β Agonist
Pindolol
Nonselective β with α Blocking
Carvedilol
Labetalol
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2 mins
Systemic Effects of Beta-Blockers
Respiratory
Bronchoconstriction
Metabolic
Decreased Insulin
Decreased Glycolysis and Lipolysis
Eye
Reduces Intraocular Pressure
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1 min
Epinephrine
Mechanism of Action
Alpha Agonist
Beta Agonist
Indications
Hypotension
Anaphylaxis
Allergy
Glaucoma
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45 secs
Alpha Agonists
-RINE suffix
Norepinephrine
Hypotension
Phenylephrine
Hypotension
Congestion
Ephedrine
Congestion
Urinary Incontinence
Hypotension
Epinephrine
Anaphylaxis and Asthma
Hypotension
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1 min
Pilocarpine (Pilocar)
Mechanism
Direct Cholinergic Agonist
Contracts Iris Sphincter
Contracts Ciliary Muscle
Indications
Xerostomia
Glaucoma
Side Effects
Detached Retina
Decreased Visual Acuity
Eye Irritation
Cholinergic Effects
Considerations
Avoid with Asthma or Bradycardia
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2 mins
Indirect Cholinomimetics
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Doesn't Cross BBB
Edrophonium
Myasthenia Gravis (Diagnosis)
Pyridostigmine and Neostigmine
Myasthenia Gravis (Tx)
Ileus
Crosses BBB
Physostigmine
Atropine Overdose
Glaucoma
Donepezil
Alzheimer's
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2 mins
Direct Cholinomimetics
Muscarinic Agonists
Bethanechol
Bladder and Bowels
Methacholine
Bronchoconstriction
Pilocarpine
Contracts Ciliary Muscle and Pupillary Sphincter
Carbachol
Releases Intraocular Pressure
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1 min
Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
Names Include "Cur"
Competitive Antagonists
Acetylcholine Competition
Reversal of Blockade
Neostigmine, Edrophonium
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1 min
Closed-Angle Glaucoma
Primary
Lens causes pupillary obstruction
Aqueous humor builds behind iris
Iris bends forward, obstructing trabecular mesh
Secondary
Hypoxia Causes Neovascular Proliferation
Contraction and obstruction of trabecular mesh
Chronic disease (Crone)
Asymptomatic
Acute Disease
Eye pain and blindness
Rock-hard eye
Headache
Emergency
Epinephrine contraindicated
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2 mins
Open-Angle Glaucoma
Humor Has Access to Trabecular Meshwork
Presentation
Painless
African-American
Elderly
Positive Family History
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Most Common Form of Glaucoma
Unknown Mechanism
Secondary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Blocked Trabecular Meshwork (With Open-Angle)
WBCs
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
Retinal Products
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2 mins
Otitis Media Interventions
Antipyretics
Analgesics
Antibiotics
Irrigation
Position on Affected Side
Myringotomy
Tympanostomy Tube
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2 mins
Otitis Media Assessment
Red or Bulging Tympanic Membrane
Ear Pain
Pulling at Ear
Fever
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
More Common in Young Children
Eustachian Tube Narrower
Conductive Hearing Loss
Smoking Increases Risk
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2 mins
Ampicillin and Amoxicillin
Mechanism
Aminopenicillin
Broad Spectrum Penicillin
Indications
Gram-Positive and Some Gram-Negative Infections
Side Effects
Rash
Diarrhea
Considerations
No Effect Against Staph Aureus
Often combined with Beta Lactamase Inhibitor
Allergic Reaction
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2 mins
Aminopenicillin Uses
Drug Names
Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Indications
Shigella
Haemophilus Influenzae
Salmonella
Listeria
Enterococci
Proteus Mirabilis
E. Coli
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1 min
Aminopenicillin Mechanisms
Indications
Broader Spectrum
Drug Names
Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Mechanism and Characteristics
Beta-Lactamase Sensitive
Combine with Clavulanic Acid
Side Effects
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Ampicillin Rash
Pseudomembranous Colitis
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2 mins
Trimethoprim
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Inhibits Bacterial Dihydrofolate Reductase
Causes Sequential Block of Folate Synthesis
Used in Combination with Sulfamethoxazole
Combination Used For Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Indications
Shigella
Salmonella
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia
Side Effects
Decrease in Red and White Blood Cells
Alleviated with Leucovorin Rescue
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2 mins
Sulfonamides Mechanisms
Bacteriostatic
Gram-Positive
Gram-Negative
Nocardia
Chlamydia
PABA antimetabolites
Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase
Sulfamethoxazole
Sulfisoxazole
Sulfadiazine
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1 min
2nd Generation Cephalosporin
Drug Names
Cefoxitin
Cefaclor
Cefuroxime
Indications (PEcK HENS Mnemonic)
Proteus mirabilis
E. coli
Klebsiella
Gram-Positive Cocci
Haemophilus influenzae
Enterobacter
Neisseria
Serratia marcescens
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2 mins
3rd Generation Cephalosporin
Drug Names
Cefotaxime
Ceftriaxone
Cefdinir
Ceftazidime
Pseudomonas
Indications
Serious Gram-Negative Bacteria Resistant to Other Beta-Lactams
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1 min
Macrolides
Bacteriostatic
Erythromycin
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Bind to 23S rRNA of 50S subunit
Inhibit protein synthesis by blocking translocation
Gram-Positive Cocci
Atypical pneumonia
Chlamydia
Resistance by methylation of 23S rRNA binding
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1 min

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