Steven Shared "2015 Study Guide Reproductive" - 38 Picmonics

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2015 Study Guide Reproductive

Branchial Pouches: 2nd Pouch
Palatine Tonsils
37 secs
Branchial Pouches: 1st Pouch
Endoderm Lines the Auditory Tube
Middle Ear Cavity
Eustachian Tube
Mastoid Air Cells
1 min
Branchial Pouches: 3rd Pouch
Separates into Dorsal and Ventral Wings
Dorsal Wings
Inferior Parathyroid Glands
Ventral Wings
Thymus
1 min
Testes
Characteristics
FSH Stimulates Sertoli Cells
Inhibin B Release
LH Stimulates Leydig Cells
Leydig Cells Secrete Testosterone
Testosterone Causes Male Development
2 mins
Ejaculation Pathway
SEVEn UP
Seminiferous Tubules
Epididymis
Vas Deferens
Ejaculatory Ducts
Urethra
Penis
1 min
Ovulatory Hormones I - Follicular Phase
0-14 Days
GnRH Stimulates FSH and LH
Follicle Secretes Estrogen
Negative Feedback from Estrogen
Increased Estrogen Leads to Positive feedback
FSH and LH Surge
Increased Estrogen from Follicle
LH Spike Leads to Ovulation
2 mins
Ovulatory Hormones II - Luteal Phase
Days 15-28
Corpus Luteum
Secretes Progesterone
Negative Feedback inhibits FSH and LH
No pregnancy forms Corpus Albicans
Stops Estrogen Secretion
Endometrial Sloughing - Menses
GnRH secretion produces new follicular phase
2 mins
Oogenesis
Characteristics
Primary Oocytes From Birth
Meiosis I Once a Month
Secondary Oocyte Plus Polar Body
Frozen in Metaphase II, in Meiosis II
Ovulation
Fertilization by Sperm
Meiosis II
Ovum
Zygote Forms
2 mins
Menopause Symptoms
Symptoms
HAVOCS Mnemonic
Hot Flashes
Atrophy of Vagina
Osteoporosis
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Sleep disturbances
50 secs
Menopause Lab Findings
Decreased Estrogen
Lack of Negative Feedback
Increased FSH
Increased LH
Increased GnRH
Small Amount of Estrogen From Androgen Conversion
Increased Androgens = Hirsutism
1 min
Spermatogenesis
Seminiferous Tubules
Sertoli Cells
Spermatogonia
Mitosis
Primary Spermatocyte
Meiosis I
Secondary Spermatocyte
Meiosis II
Spermatid
Spermatozoa
Acrosome
Flagellum
2 mins
Klinefelter's Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Male (XXY)
Signs and Symptoms
Eunuchoid Body Shape
Gynecomastia and Female Hair Distribution
Testicular Atrophy
Dysgenesis of Seminiferous Tubules
Possible Developmental Delay
Hypogonadism
Decreased Inhibin B
Increased FSH
Abnormal Leydig Cell Function
Decreased Testosterone
Increased LH
Increased Estrogen
Barr body (inactivated X chromosome)
6 mins
Turner Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Female (XO)
Short stature
Shield Chest
Cystic Hygroma (Webbing of Neck)
Lymphedema in Hands and Feet
Ovarian Dysgenesis
Streak Ovary
Decreased Estrogen
Increased FSH
Increased LH
Dysgerminoma
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Preductal Coarctation of the Aorta
Horseshoe Kidney
Menopause before Menarche
Amenorrhea
5 mins
Androgen Insensitivity (Complete)
Defect in androgen receptor
Phenotypically female
(46, XY)
Female external genitalia
Rudimentary Vagina
Scant sexual hair
Testes often in labia majora
Testes surgically removed to prevent malignancy
Increased estrogen, testosterone, and LH
Absent uterus and fallopian tubes
3 mins
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency
Autosomal Recessive
Inability to Convert Testosterone to DHT
Normal Internal Genitalia
Ambiguous External Genitalia until Puberty
Masculinization During Puberty with Growth of External Genitalia
LH can be Increased
Normal Estrogen, LH, and Testosterone levels
2 mins
Kallman Syndrome
Mutation in KAL-1 or FGFR-1 Gene
Failure of GnRH Secreting Neurons
Delayed Puberty
Anosmia
Hypogonadism
Infertility
2 mins
Placental Implantation Abnormalities
Mechanism
Placenta adheres directly to myometrium
Placenta Accreta
Placenta Increta
Placenta Percreta
Caused by scar tissue
Hemorrhage
Diagnosis
Ultrasound is First-line, then MRI
Treatment
C-section delivery
Artery ligation or embolization
2 mins
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Symptoms and Diagnosis
Symptoms
Most Common Cause of Infertility in Women
Amenorrhea
Acne
Hirsutism
Obesity
Diagnosis
Enlarged, Cystic Ovaries
LH:FSH Ratio of 3:1
"String of Pearls" on Ultrasound
1 min
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Mechanism
Mechanism
Hyperinsulinemia Increases GnRH Pulse Frequency
Large Increase in LH
Small Decrease in FSH
Increased Androgen Production From Theca-Lutein Cells
Decreased Steroid Hormone-Binding-Globulin (SHBG) Causes Increased Free Testosterone
Obese Patients Have Increased Estrogen
Increased Risk of Endometrial Cancer
2 mins
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment
Weight Loss
Oral Contraceptives
Clomiphene Citrate
Anti-androgens
Cyclic Progesterone for Endometrial Protection
Metformin
1 min

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