Melissa Shared "Cardio- Exam 1" - 10 Picmonics

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Cardio- Exam 1

Aortic Stenosis
Characteristics
Age-related Calcifications
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Crescendo-decrescendo Murmur
Systolic Murmur
Ejection Murmur
Ejection Click
Radiates to Carotids and Apex
Pulsus Parvus et Tardus
Syncope
Helmet Cells
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2 mins
Aortic Regurgitation
Auscultation
Diastolic Murmur
Immediate High-pitched
Blowing Murmur
Clinical Findings
Wide Pulse Pressure
Water Hammer Pulse
Head Bobbing
Pulsating Nail Bed
Considerations
Can Cause Austin Flint Murmur
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1 min
Tricuspid Regurgitation
Holosystolic
Blowing Murmur
Radiates to Right Sternal Border
Enhanced by Inspiration
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1 min
Mitral Stenosis
Characteristics
Murmur Follows Opening Snap
Late Diastolic Murmur
Enhanced by Expiration
Low-Pitched Rumbling
Dilation of Left Atrium (LA)
Recurrent Attacks of Rheumatic Fever
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2 mins
Mitral Regurgitation
Characteristics
Holosystolic
Blowing Murmur
Loudest at Apex
Radiates toward Axilla
Louder by Squatting
Hand Grip
Expiration
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1 min
Blood Pressure Classification (JNC 7)
Classifications
Normal
Systolic (< 120)
Diastolic (< 80)
Prehypertension
Systolic +20 (120-139)
Diastolic +10 (80-89)
Stage 1 Hypertension
Systolic +20 (140-159)
Diastolic +10 (90-99)
Stage 2 Hypertension
Systolic + > 20 (160)
Diastolic + > 10 (100)
Hypertensive Crisis
Systolic > 180
Diastolic > 110
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4 mins
Hypertension Assessment
Mechanism
Essential Hypertension
Secondary Hypertension
Assessment
Headache
Vision Changes
Nosebleed (Epistaxis)
Chest Pain
Syncope (Fainting)
Diagnosis
Average 2 Sets, 2 Minutes Apart
After 2 or More Visits
Nursing Considerations
Take BP Both Arms
Common in African Americans
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2 mins
Hypercholesterolemia Disease
Risk Factors
Diabetes
Smoking
Family History
Hypertension
HDL < 40
Men Older than 45 Years of Age
Women Older than 55 Years of Age
Signs and Symptoms
Atheromas
Plaques in Blood Vessel Walls
Tissue Ischemia
Xanthomas
Lipemia Retinalis
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2 mins
Hypercholesterolemia Treatment
Lifestyle Modifications (Diet, Exercise, Smoking Cessation)
Statins
Niacin
Ezetimibe
Fibrates
Bile Acid Resins
Screening
Men greater or equal to 35 Years Old (20-35 if at increased risk)
Women greater or equal to 45 Years Old (20-45 if at increased risk)
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2 mins
Cholesterol Lab Values
LDL (Low Density Cholesterol)
< 100 mg/dL
HDL (High Density Cholesterol)
> 40 mg/dL Males
> 50 mg/dL Females
Total Cholesterol
< 200 mg/dL
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1 min

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