Anna Shared "Pathophysiology Module 2" - 45 Picmonics

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Pathophysiology Module 2

Types of Fractures
Nondisplaced
Displaced
Incomplete
Complete
Closed
Open
Direction of Fracture Line
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2 mins
Hip Fracture
Assessment
External Rotation
Muscle Spasms
Shortened Leg
Pain
Interventions
Buck's Traction
Analgesics
Surgery
Considerations
Avascular Necrosis
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1 min
Hip Surgery
Neurovascular Assessment
No 90 Degree Hip Flexion
No Adduction
No Internal Rotation
Avoid Turning on Affected Side
Considerations
Thromboembolism Prevention
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2 mins
Osteoporosis Assessment
Highest Risk
Postmenopausal Women
Long Term Corticosteroids
Assessment
Kyphosis
Dowager's Hump
Loss of Height
Back Pain
Pathologic Fractures
Spinal Compression Fracture
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1 min
Osteoporosis Interventions
Increased Calcium Intake
Vitamin D Supplements
Bisphosphonates
Raloxifene
Denosumab
Calcitonin
Teriparatide
Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Scan
Weight Bearing Exercises
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2 mins
Osteoarthritis
Mechanism
Articular Cartilage Destruction
Biomechanical Stress
Aging
Signs and Symptoms
Asymmetric
Pain Decreases with Rest
Morning Stiffness Under 30 Minutes
Crepitus
DIP and PIP Joints
Treatment
Lifestyle Changes
Acetaminophen or NSAIDs
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1 min
Osteoarthritis Assessment
Mechanism
Aging
Articular Cartilage Destruction
Biomechanical Stress
Signs and Symptoms
Asymmetric
Pain Decreases with Rest
Morning Stiffness under 30 Minutes
Crepitus
DIP and PIP Joints
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1 min
Osteoarthritis Interventions
Lifestyle Modifications
Balance Rest and Activity
Therapeutic Exercise
Heat and Cold Applications
Drug Therapy
Intra-articular Injection
NSAIDs
Considerations
Reconstructive Joint Surgery
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1 min
Rheumatoid Arthritis Assessment
Mechanism
Destruction of Connective Tissue and Synovial Membrane
Signs and Symptoms
Inflammation of Joints
Morning Stiffness
Nodules
Joint Deformities
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1 min
Rheumatoid Arthritis Interventions
Lifestyle Modifications
Heat and Cold Applications
Therapeutic Exercise
Balance Rest and Activity
Drug Therapy
NSAIDs
DMARDs
Glucocorticoids
Considerations
PT/OT
Reconstructive Joint Surgery
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2 mins
Muscular Dystrophy
Mechanism
X-linked Recessive
Signs and Symptoms
Muscle Weakness
Motor Problems
Gower Sign
Large Calves
Waddling Gait
Loss of Ambulation
Consideration
Cardiac and Respiratory Failure
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2 mins
Gout Disease
Acute Inflammatory Monoarthritis
Epidemiology
Primarily in Males
Pathophysiology
Precipitation of Monosodium Urate Crystals
Underexcretion of Uric Acid
Overproduction of Uric Acid
Negatively Birefringent, Needle-Shaped
Symptoms
Swollen, Red, Painful Joint
Asymmetric Joint Distribution
Podagra
Tophus
After Large Meal or Alcohol
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2 mins
Gout Treatment
Acute (Acute-angle)
NSAIDs
Glucocorticoids
Colchicine
Impairs Leukocyte Chemotaxis
Chronic Gout (Crone Goat)
Inhibit Xanthine Oxidase
Allopurinol
Febuxostat
Inhibit Reabsorption of Uric Acid
Probenecid
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1 min
Sickle Cell Anemia Assessment
Cause/Mechanism
Hemoglobin S (Genetic Defect)
Sickle Shaped RBCs
Assessment
Jaundice
Vaso Occlusive Crisis
Fever
Priapism
Severe Pain
Considerations
Prominent in African Americans
May be Asymptomatic
Increased Risk of Infection
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia Interventions
Interventions
Increase Hydration
Analgesics
Oxygen
Warm Compress
Bone Marrow Transplant
Hydroxyurea
Considerations
Avoid High Altitudes
Prophylactic Antibiotics
Avoid Strenuous Exercise
Vaccines
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3 mins
Hemophilia
Cause/Mechanism
Genetic Mutation
Assessment
Prolonged Bleeding
Pain
Hemarthrosis
Interventions
Clotting Factor Replacement Therapy
DDAVP (Desmopressin Acetate)
Antifibrinolytic Therapy
Analgesics
Considerations
Genetic Counseling
Prevent Injury
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3 mins
Leukemia Assessment
Cause
Immature WBCs
Assessment
Recurrent Infections
Easy Bruising
Bleeding
Anemia
Fatigue
Weight Loss
Bone Pain
Considerations
May Have Normal or High WBC Count
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2 mins
Leukemia Interventions
Diagnosis
Bone Marrow Aspiration
X-Rays
Interventions
Chemotherapy
Bleeding Precautions
Neutropenic Precautions
Strict Asepsis
Bone Marrow Transplant
Blood Transfusions
Monitor Temperature Elevations
Adequate Nutrition
Imatinib (Gleevec) for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
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3 mins
Hodgkin's Lymphoma Assessment
Cause
Lymph Node Cancer
Contiguous Spread
Assessment
Painless Lymphadenopathy
Constitutional B Signs
Night Sweats
Fever
Weight Loss
Considerations
Bimodal Age Distribution
Reed-Sternberg Cells
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2 mins
Hodgkin's Lymphoma Interventions
Diagnosis
Biopsy
Staging
Interventions
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Treat Side Effects of Therapy
Considerations
Secondary Cancer Screening
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2 mins

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