Diana Shared "Pharmacology" - 229 Picmonics

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Pharmacology

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Clotting Factors
Indications
Atrial Fibrillation
Venous Thrombosis
Pulmonary Embolism
Assessment
PT/INR Levels
Observe for Bleeding
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Nursing Considerations
Vitamin K and Fresh Frozen Plasma
Prolonged Therapeutic Onset
Maintain Same Diet
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2 mins
Heparin (Unfractionated)
Mechanism of Action
Suppresses Coagulation
Indications
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Pulmonary Embolism
Side Effects
Hemorrhage
Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Considerations
Monitor aPTT
Preferred (Safe) During Pregnancy
Antidote
Protamine Sulfate
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2 mins
Aminoglycoside Overview
End in "-mycin"
GNATS
Gentamicin
Neomycin
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Indications
Severe Gram Negative Infections
Bowel Surgery Prep
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1 min
Aminoglycoside Side Effects
Side Effects
Ototoxicity
Nephrotoxicity
Respiratory Paralysis
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Considerations
Peak and Trough
Never Mix with Penicillin in Same IV
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2 mins
Vancomycin
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis
Indications
Serious Gram-Positive Infections
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Red Man Syndrome
Thrombophlebitis
Nursing Considerations
Culture Samples First
Infuse IV Over 60 Minutes
Take Around the Clock
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2 mins
Fluoroquinolones
End in "-floxacin"
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Indications
Variety of Infections
Side Effects
GI Distress
Photosensitivity
Achilles Tendon Rupture
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Children
Myasthenia Gravis
Considerations
Avoid Milk Products or Antacids
Slow IV Infusion
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2 mins
6 Rights of Medication Administration
Right Patient
Right Medication
Right Dose
Right Time
Right Route
Right Documentation
Nursing Considerations
Three Checks
Check for Allergies
Assess the Patient
Education
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2 mins
Needle Sizes and Uses
Adjust Size Based on Height/Weight
Subcutaneous Injections
3/8 or 5/8 inch
Intramuscular (IM)
1-1.5 inches
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1 min
Peak and Trough
Peak
Highest Concentration
Trough
Lowest Level of Therapeutic Range
Obtain Before Next Dose
Half-Life
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2 mins
Routes of Administration Part One
Enteral Administration
Oral
Sublingual
Buccal
Rectal
Tubes
Topical or Mucous Membrane Administration
Transdermal
Drops/Spray
Vaginal
Inhalation Administration
Inhalation
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2 mins
Routes of Administration Part Two (Parenteral)
Parenteral Administration
Intradermal
Subcutaneous
Intramuscular (IM)
Intravenous
Epidural
Intrathecal
Intraosseous
Intraperitoneal
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2 mins
Intramuscular Medication (IM) Administration
Risks
Injury to Nerves, Bone, and Blood Vessels
Sites
Deltoid
Vastus Lateralis
Ventrogluteal
Nursing Considerations
Selection of Needle Length
Aseptic Technique for Drawing Up
Z-Track
90 Degree Angle
Max Amount (2-5 mL Adult, 1 mL Child)
Techniques to Reduce Pain
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2 mins
Transdermal Medication Administration
Application
Patch or Disc
Directly on Skin of Arms, Chest, Upper Back
Benefits
Avoids First Pass Metabolism
Sustained Administration of Medication
Nursing Considerations
Clean Skin After Removal
Rotate Sites of Patches
Apply to Dry Skin
Avoid Shaved Skin
Avoid Heat
Nitro Effects Lost After 24 Hours
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2 mins
Ear Drops Medication Administration
Indications
Earwax Buildup
Ear Infections
Pulling The Pinna
Child - Back and Downward
Adult - Back and Upward
Procedure
Side-Lying with Ear Up
Instill Medication
Stay for 2-3 Minutes
Nursing Considerations
Room Temperature
May Massage Tragus
Perforated Eardrum
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2 mins
Eye Medication Administration
Procedure
Supine with Neck Hyperextended
Wash Away Crusts
Cotton Ball on Cheekbone
For Ophthalmic Drops
Instill Drops into Conjunctival Sac
Repeat if Missed or Patient Blinks
5 Minutes Before 2nd Medication
For Ophthalmic Ointment
Thin Stream Along Inner Edge
Inner Canthus to Outer Canthus
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2 mins
Alpha 1 Receptor
Characteristics
Gq Subunit
Increase Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction
Increase Pupillary Dilator Muscle Contraction
Increase Intestinal and Bladder Sphincter Muscle Contraction
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1 min
Alpha 2 Receptor
Characteristics
Gi Subunit
Decrease Sympathetic Outflow
Decrease Insulin Release
Decrease Lipolysis
Increase Platelet Aggregation
Decrease Aqueous Humor Production
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2 mins
Beta-1 Receptor
Characteristics
Gs Protein Class
Increased Heart Rate
Increased Contractility
Increase Renin Release
Increased Lipolysis
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43 secs
Beta-2 Receptor
Characteristics
Gs protein class
Increased Heart Rate
Increased Contractility
Increased Lipolysis
Increased Insulin
Increased Aqueous Humor Production
Ciliary Muscle Relaxation
Vasodilation
Bronchodilation
Decrease Uterine Tone
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2 mins
P450 Inhibitors
Quinidine
Ciprofloxacin
Isoniazid
Grapefruit Juice
Acute Alcohol Use
Erythromycin (Macrolide)
Indinavir
Cimetidine
Sulfonamides
Ketoconazole
Amiodarone
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2 mins

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