Meg Shared "Pharm Exam 3" - 25 Picmonics

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Pharm Exam 3

Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
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2 mins
Prednisone (Glucocorticoids)
Mechanism
Glucocorticoid
Indications
Inflammatory Conditions
Organ Transplant Rejection
Side Effects
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Cushing's Syndrome
Osteoporosis
Immunosuppression
Hyperglycemia
Ulcers
Considerations
Adrenal Insufficiency
Taper Gradually
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2 mins
Diazepam (Valium)
Indications
Anxiety
Seizures and Status Epilepticus
Muscle Spasms
Alcohol Withdrawal
Side Effect/Assessment
Dizziness/Vision Changes
Confusion/Amnesia
Urinary Incontinence
Behavioral Changes
Respiratory Depression
Antidote
Flumazenil (Romazicon)
Nursing Considerations
Fall Precaution
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Phenytoin (Dilantin)
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Tonic-clonic Seizures
Side Effects
Ataxia
Nystagmus
Sedation
Gingival Hyperplasia
Purple Glove Syndrome
Hirsutism
Rash
Anemia
Considerations
Individualized Dosing
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2 mins
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
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2 mins
Metformin (Glucophage)
Mechanism
Decrease Glucose Production
Increase Insulin Sensitivity
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Side Effects
GI Distress
Decreased Appetite
Lactic Acidosis
Considerations
IV Contrast
Limit Alcohol Consumption
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2 mins
CNS Stimulants
Indications
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Obesity
Mechanism of Action
Increase Catecholamines at Synaptic Cleft
Increase Norepinephrine
Increase Dopamine
Drug Names
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Methamphetamine
Side Effect
Potential for Abuse
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56 secs
Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
Mechanism
Inactivates Na+ Channels
Indications
Seizures
Bipolar Disorder
Trigeminal Neuralgia
Side Effects
Nystagmus
Ataxia
Hepatotoxicity
Blood Dyscrasias
Water Retention
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Considerations
Avoid Grapefruit Juice
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2 mins
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reuptake of Norepinephrine and Serotonin
Indications
Depression
Bipolar Disorder
Fibromyalgia
Side Effects
Sedation
Orthostatic Hypotension
Anticholinergic Effects
Cardiac Toxicity
Considerations
Delayed Effect
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) Overview
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Serotonin and NE Reuptake
Lipid-soluble
Side Effects
Adverse CNS Effects
Anticholinergic
Antihistamine
Tri-C: Convulsion, Coma, Cardiotoxicity
Blocks Alpha1 Receptors
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2 mins
Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reuptake of Serotonin
Indications
Depression
Side Effects
Sexual Dysfunction
CNS Stimulation
Weight Changes
Serotonin Syndrome
Contraindications
No MAO-Is
No Anticoagulants / Antiplatelets
Considerations
Suicide Risk
Delayed Onset of Action
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2 mins
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Overview
Indications
Depression
Anxiety
Mechanism of Action
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Drugs
Paroxetine
Sertraline
Escitalopram
Fluoxetine
Side Effects
Sexual Dysfunction
Serotonin Syndrome
Treat with Cyproheptadine
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2 mins
Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
Indications
Depression
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Duloxetine
Panic and Anxiety
Venlafaxine
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reuptake of Serotonin and NE
Side Effects
Hypertension
Insomnia
Nausea and Vomiting
Decreased Libido
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1 min
Lithium
Mechanism of Action
Mood Stabilizer
Unknown Mechanism
Indications
Bipolar Disorder
Side Effects
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Hypothyroidism
Tremor
Heart Block
Contraindication
Pregnancy
Considerations
Monitor Plasma Levels
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2 mins
Antipsychotics Overview
Indications
Schizophrenia
Tourette's Syndrome
Mechanism of Action
Lipid-Soluble
Block Dopamine Receptors
Side Effects
Galactorrhea
Tardive Dyskinesia
Anticholinergic
Alpha1 Antagonist
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2 mins
Atypical Antipsychotics
Indications
Schizophrenia
Mechanism of Action
Unknown Mechanism
Side Effects
Seizures
Prolonged QT Interval
Agranulocytosis
Weight Gain
Fewer Extrapyramidal Side Effects
Fewer Anticholinergic Side Effects
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2 mins
Levothyroxine (Synthroid)
Mechanism
Synthetic T4
Indications
Hypothyroidism
Side Effects
Thyrotoxicosis
Tremors
Heat Intolerance
Insomnia
Tachycardia
Considerations
Do Not Use for Obesity
TSH Monitoring
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2 mins
Propylthiouracil (PTU) and Methimazole (MMI)
Indications
Hyperthyroidism
Mechanism
Inhibits Thyroid Peroxidase
PTU Blocks Peripheral Conversion of T4 to T3
Side Effects
Agranulocytosis
Skin Rash
Hepatotoxicity (PTU)
Teratogen (MMI)
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1 min
Valproic Acid (Depakote)
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Increases GABA Concentration
Indications
Tonic-clonic Seizures
Bipolar Disorder
Migraine Prophylaxis
Side Effects
Hepatotoxicity
Blood Dyscrasias
GI Distress
Tremor
Pancreatitis
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1 min
Addison's Disease Assessment
Assessment
Deficiency of Cortisol and Aldosterone
Irritability
Hyperkalemia
Muscle Weakness
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Hyponatremia
Hypotension
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
Addisonian Crisis
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2 mins

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