jessica Shared "Test 4" - 29 Picmonics

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Test 4

Primary Hypertension Risk Factors
Excessive Alcohol Consumption
High Sodium Diet
Dyslipidemia
Obesity
African American
Advanced Age
Vitamin D Deficiency
Reduced Nephron number
Diabetes
Lack of Physical Activity
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1 min
Blood Pressure Classification (JNC 7)
Classifications
Normal
Systolic (< 120)
Diastolic (< 80)
Prehypertension
Systolic +20 (120-139)
Diastolic +10 (80-89)
Stage 1 Hypertension
Systolic +20 (140-159)
Diastolic +10 (90-99)
Stage 2 Hypertension
Systolic + > 20 (160)
Diastolic + > 10 (100)
Hypertensive Crisis
Systolic > 180
Diastolic > 110
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4 mins
Hypertension Assessment
Mechanism
Essential Hypertension
Secondary Hypertension
Assessment
Headache
Vision Changes
Nosebleed (Epistaxis)
Chest Pain
Syncope (Fainting)
Diagnosis
Average 2 Sets, 2 Minutes Apart
After 2 or More Visits
Nursing Considerations
Take BP Both Arms
Common in African Americans
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2 mins
Hypertension Intervention
Lifestyle Modifications
Weight Reduction and Exercise
Diet Changes
Relaxation Techniques
Smoking Cessation
Medications
Encourage Self Monitoring
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1 min
Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
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1 min
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
Mechanism
Atherosclerosis
Assessment
Intermittent Claudication
Pain with Exercise
Paresthesias
Arterial Ulcers
Critical Limb Ischemia
Amputation
Consideration
Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI)
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1 min
Arterial Ulcer Assessment
Absent or Decreased Pulses
Intermittent Claudication
Sharp Pain
Dependent Rubor
Well Defined Edges
Over Bony Areas
Smooth, Shiny Skin
Toes, Heels, Lateral Lower Legs
Cool
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2 mins
Arterial Ulcer Interventions
Saline Dressing
Structured Exercise Programs
Fibrinolytics
Antiplatelet Medication
No Caffeine, Nicotine
Surgery
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1 min
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (Venous Stasis Ulcer) Assessment
Venous Stasis Ulcer
Uneven Edges
Dull Persistent Pain
Medial Malleolus
Necrotic
Normal Pulses
Lower Leg Edema
Bronze-Brown Pigmentation
Warm
Pruritus
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2 mins
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (Venous Stasis Ulcer) Interventions
Frequently Elevate Legs
Avoid Standing/Sitting for Long Periods of Time
Elastic Compression Stockings
Bilayer Artificial Skin
Daflon
Wound Dressings
Proper Foot and Leg Care
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2 mins
Beta Blockers
"-olol" suffix
Mechanism
Decreases Heart Rate and Contractility
Decreases Peripheral Vascular Resistance
Decreases Renin Release
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Angina Pectoris
Contraindications
Asthma and Heart Block Patients
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
Masking Signs of Hypoglycemia
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
"-pril" Suffix
Mechanism of Action
Block Renin Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Dry Non-productive Cough
Hypotension
Dizziness
Possible Hyperkalemia
Angioedema
Nursing Considerations
Slowly Change Position
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Ends in "-sartan"
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Angiotensin II Receptor
Indications
Hypertension
Side Effects
Angioedema
Contraindications
Renal Artery Stenosis
Pregnancy
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1 min
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil and Diltiazem)
Mechanism of Action
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Angina Pectoris
Arrhythmias
Essential Hypertension
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Constipation
Peripheral Edema
Gingival Hyperplasia
Nursing Consideration
Medication Education
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2 mins
Cardiovascular Effects of Beta-Blockers
Cardiac Myocytes and Vasculature
Decrease cAMP
Decreases SA and AV Node Conduction Velocity
Lower Blood Pressure
Decrease O2 Consumption
Decreases Mortality Post-MI
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2 mins
Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick ascending limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl-
Sulfa drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Ototoxicity from Rapid Injection
Gout
Dehydration
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
Orthostatic Hypotension
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2 mins
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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1 min
Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Mechanisms
Inhibition of Aldosterone
Potassium Retention
Indications
Hypertension
Edema
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Endocrine Effects
Consideration
Avoid Potassium Supplements
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2 mins
High Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Atria Release Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Vasodilation
Antagonizes Aldosterone
Na+ and Water Excreted
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1 min
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
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2 mins

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