# Carlos Shared "01 Biostat + Psych" -95 Picmonics

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### 01 Biostat + Psych

Cross-Sectional Study
Observational
(Asks) "What's happening?"
Data at one specific point in time
(Finds) frequency of disease
Measurement
Prevalence
49 secs
Case Control Study
Observational
Retrospective
Compares those with disease to those without
(Asks) "What happened?"
Measurement
Odds Ratio
47 secs
Cohort Study
Observational
Longitudinal
Studies risk from exposure
Retrospective
(Asks) "Who developed disease?"
Prospective
(Asks) "Who will develop disease?"
1 min
Sensitivity
Characteristics
Rules Out
Screening Test
Formula
TP / (FN+TP)
2 mins
Specificity
Characteristics
Rules In
Confirmatory Test
Formula
TN / (TN + FP)
1 min
Positive Predictive Value (PPV)
Proportion of Positive Tests that are True Positive
Probability that Person with Positive Test has Disease
Formula
TP (True Positives)
Divided by /
All Positive Test Results
TP + FP
Considerations
Varies Directly with Prevalence
1 min
Negative Predictive Value (NPV)
Proportion of Negative Tests that are Truly Negative
Probability that Person with Negative Test is Healthy
Formula
(TN) True Negatives
Divided by /
All Negative Test Results
(FN + TN)
Considerations
Varies Inversely with Prevalence
1 min
Quantifying Risk: Contingency 2x2 Table Setup
Disease
Along Top (x axis)
Exposure
Along Side (y axis)
A: Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
B: Exposed and Healthy
C: Not Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
D: Not Exposed and Healthy
2 mins
Odds Ratio (OR)
Use
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Formula
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
Interpretation
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
2 mins
Relative Risk (RR)
Use
Used in Cohort Studies
Formula
Risk of Developing Disease
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
2 mins
Attributable Risk (AR)
Use
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Formula
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Minus -
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
1 min
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Assessment
Assessment
Inattention
Incomplete Tasks
Easily Distracted
Hyperactivity
Impulsiveness
Disruptive
Considerations
Two Areas of Life
Onset by Age 12
Symptoms > 6 Months
3 mins
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Interventions
Drug Therapy
CNS Stimulants
Amphetamine
Methylphenidate
Bupropion (Wellbutrin)
Atomoxetine (Strattera)
Guanfacine (Intuniv)
Considerations
Manage Disruptive Behavior
Provide Simple Instructions
2 mins
Delirium
Mechanism
Rapid Onset
Reversible
Assessment
Hallucinations
Decline in Cognition
Short Attention Span
Rapid Speech
Change in Activity Level
Mood Swings
2 mins
Causes of Dementia
Reversible Causes
Intoxication or Medications
Depression
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Metabolic Conditions
Irreversible Causes
Lewy Body Dementia
Prion Disease
Pick's Disease
AIDS Dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
Multi-infarct (Vascular) Dementia
2 mins
Hallucinations, Illusions, Delusions
Hallucination
No External Stimulus
Auditory
Visual
Olfactory
Gustatory
Tactile
Illusion
Misinterpretation of Stimulus
Delusion
Fixed, False Belief
2 mins
Schizophrenia Assessment
Positive Symptoms
Hallucinations
Delusions
Associative Looseness
Negative Symptoms
Flat Affect
Poverty of Thought
Absence of Something that Should be Present
Cognitive Symptoms
Illogical Thinking
Impaired Judgment and Memory
Affective Symptoms
Dysphoria
2 mins
Schizophrenia Interventions
Drug Therapy
Antipsychotics
Interventions
Build Trust
Assistance with Self-care
Reality Testing
Monitor for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Monitor for Tardive Dyskinesia
Family Therapy
2 mins
Anxiety Assessment
Mild
Increased Alertness
Heightened Perception
Moderate
Perception Narrowed
Short Attention Span
Shaking
Severe
Ineffective Problem Solving
Automatic Behavior
Hyperventilation
Panic
Hallucinations
Inability to Function or Communicate
2 mins
Suicide Risk Factors
Depression
Previous Attempt
No Support System
Access to Firearms or Medications
Substance Abuse
Physical or Sexual Abuse
Chronic Illness or Pain
Extremes of Age
2 mins