Hope Shared "EBM" - 6 Picmonics

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EBM

Cohort Study
Observational
Longitudinal
Studies risk from exposure
Retrospective
(Asks) "Who developed disease?"
Prospective
(Asks) "Who will develop disease?"
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1 min
Case Control Study
Observational
Retrospective
Compares those with disease to those without
(Asks) "What happened?"
Measurement
Odds Ratio
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47 secs
Cross-Sectional Study
Observational
(Asks) "What's happening?"
Data at one specific point in time
(Finds) frequency of disease
Measurement
Prevalence
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49 secs
Relative Risk (RR)
Use
Used in Cohort Studies
Formula
Risk of Developing Disease
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
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2 mins
Odds Ratio (OR)
Use
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Formula
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
Interpretation
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
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2 mins
Common Statistical Tests
Determine If Comparing Numerical Or Categorical Variables
Numerical Variables
T-Test For Comparing Means Of Two Groups
ANOVA For Comparing Means In Greater Than Three Groups
Comparing Mean Values On Normal/Bell Distribution
Categorical Variables
Chi-Squared Test For Comparing Categorical Outcomes In Large Sample Sizes
Fisher's Exact Test For Comparing Categorical Outcomes In Small Sample Sizes
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4 mins

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