Morgan Shared "Basic Test 3" - 125 Picmonics

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Basic Test 3

Lung Sounds - Crackles
Location
Lower Lobes
Description
Fine/Coarse
Sounds Like
Fine: Twisting Hair through Fingers
Coarse: Velcro
Cause
Collapsed Small Airways and Alveoli "Popping Open"
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1 min
Lung Sounds - Pleural Friction Rub
Location
Anterior Lateral Lung
Description
Dry, Rubbing, or Squeaking
Sounds Like
Rubbing a Balloon with Finger
Cause
Inflamed Pleura
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49 secs
Lung Sounds - Rhonchi
Location
Trachea and Bronchi
Description
Low Pitched Rumbling
Sounds Like
Gurgling
Cause
Narrowed Airway
Secretions or Bronchospasm
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48 secs
Lung Sounds - Wheezes
Location
Throughout Lung
Description
High Pitched
Sounds Like
Musical
Cause
Air Moving through Narrowed Airways
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37 secs
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Procedure
Internal Body Images
Detects Variations of Soft Tissues
Considerations
No Metal Objects
No Pacemakers
Contrast is Non-Iodine
Safe During Pregnancy
Long Procedure
Antianxiety Medications
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2 mins
Asthma Assessment
Assessment
Triggers (Cold air, Dander, Dust, Infection, Mold, Pollen, Smoke)
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Tachypnea and Tachycardia
Wheezing
Diaphoresis
Accessory Muscles
Decreased Pulmonary Function Tests
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Assessment
Clinical Findings
Chronic Productive Cough
> 3 Months for 2 Years
Increased Mucus Production
Dyspnea
Cyanosis
Wheezes
Complications
Right Side Heart Failure
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Peripheral Edema
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2 mins
Emphysema
Mechanism
Hyperinflation and Loss of Elasticity
Assessment
Pursed Lip Breathing
Barrel Chest
Dyspnea on Exertion
Clubbing
Depression and Anxiety
Thin Appearance
Nursing Considerations
CO2 Retention
Low Concentration of O2
High Fowler's Position
High Calorie, High Protein Diet
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2 mins
Alveolar Gas Exchange
Characteristics
Pulmonary Artery Blood is O2-Poor, CO2-Rich
Two-Cell Thick Air-Blood Barrier
CO2 Diffuses Into Air
O2 Diffuses Into Blood
Gases Equilibrate
Pulmonary Vein is O2-Rich, CO2-Poor
Thermoregulation
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2 mins
Respiratory Anatomy
Characteristics
Nasal Cavity
Hair Filters
Mucus Filters and Moistens
Capillaries Warm
Pharynx (Throat)
Larynx (Voice Box)
Cilia Expel Mucus and Dust
Trachea
Bronchi
Alveoli
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2 mins
Oxygen Delivery Methods
Nasal Cannula
Simple Face Mask
Non-Rebreather Mask
Venturi-Mask
Safety Precautions
Oxygen In Use Sign
No Electrical Sparks
Six Feet Away from Open Flames
Nursing Considerations
Dry Nasal and Upper Airway Mucosa
Skin Irritation
Home Education
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1 min
Tracheostomy Care
Inner Cannula Removed and Cleaned
Clean Q8 Hours Around Stoma
Two Fingers Under Ties
Considerations
Speak with Deflated Cuff
Can Eat with Tube in Place
Keep Replacement Tube Nearby
Immediately Replace if Dislodged
Physician Does First Tube Change
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2 mins
Chest Tubes: Management and Care
Confirm suction order
Assessment
Crepitus
Kinking
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Infection
Excessive bubbling
Quick Interventions
If tube dislodges from patient, use petroleum gauze taped 3 ways
If drainage system is damaged, place disconnected drainage tube in sterile water
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1 min
Hypoxia (Early Symptoms)
Diaphoresis
Restlessness
Tachypnea
Dyspnea on Exertion
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Decreased Urine Output
Unexplained Fatigue
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1 min
Hypoxia (Late Symptoms)
Cyanosis
Cool, Clammy Skin
Use of Accessory Muscles
Retractions
Hypotension
Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Prednisone (Glucocorticoids)
Mechanism
Glucocorticoid
Indications
Inflammatory Conditions
Organ Transplant Rejection
Side Effects
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Cushing's Syndrome
Osteoporosis
Immunosuppression
Hyperglycemia
Ulcers
Considerations
Adrenal Insufficiency
Taper Gradually
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2 mins
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) Lab Values
Women: 3.5-5.5 million cells/ MuL
Men: 4.3-5.9  million cells/ MuL
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1 min
Blood Types and Compatibilities
ABO Compatibility
No Antigens (Type O Blood)
Universal Donor
A Antigen (Type A Blood)
B Antigen (Type B Blood)
AB Antigen (Type AB Blood)
Universal Recipient
Rhesus (Rh) Compatibility
Rh (Rhesus) Antigen
Never Rh+ to Rh-
Considerations
Blood Transfusion
Obstetric Patient
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2 mins
Blood Transfusion Administration
Proper Patient Identification
Large Bore Needle
Y Tubing
Baseline Vital Signs
Slow IV Infusion
Monitor During First 15 Minutes or 50 mL of Blood
Monitor for Reactions
Considerations
Do Not Add Anything To Same IV Line
No Dextrose or Lactated Ringers
Jehovah's Witnesses, No Transfusions
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3 mins
Transfusion Reactions
Acute Hemolytic
Febrile, Non-Hemolytic
Mild Allergic
Anaphylactic
Circulatory Overload
Sepsis Reaction
Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)
Massive Blood Transfusion
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2 mins

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