Paul Shared "Biochemistry" - 115 Picmonics

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Biochemistry

Glycolysis
Characteristics
Glucose
Hexokinase or Glucokinase
Glucose-6-phosphate
Fructose-6-phosphate
Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Aldolase
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
3-phosphoglycerate
2-phosphoglycerate
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
Pyruvate Kinase
Pyruvate
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Acetyl-CoA
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4 mins
Fructose Metabolism
Liver Fructose Metabolism
Fructose
Fructokinase
Fructose-1-Phosphate
Aldolase B
DHAP
Glyceraldehyde
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
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2 mins
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
Characteristics
Acetyl-CoA + Oxaloacetate
Citric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Produces NADH
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid
Produces NADH
Succinyl CoA
Produces GTP
Succinate
Produces FADH2
Fumarate
Uses Water
Malate
Produces NADH
Oxaloacetate
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4 mins
Urea Cycle
Mitochondria
N-Acetylglutamate
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I
NH3 + CO2
Carbamoyl Phosphate
Ornithine Transcarbamylase
Citrulline
Cytosol
Aspartate
Argininosuccinate
Fumarate
Arginine
H2O to Urea
Ornithine
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3 mins
Lipid Metabolism and Ketogenesis
Lipid Metabolism
Acetyl-CoA
Biotin Cofactor
Malonyl-CoA
Fatty Acids
Triglycerides
Glycerol
DHAP
Acetoacetyl-CoA
HMG-CoA
HMG-CoA Reductase
Mevalonate
Cholesterol
Ketogenesis
Acetoacetate
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate
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4 mins
Energy Releasing Pathways: Accounting
Characteristics
Anaerobic Respiration
2 ATP
2 NADH
Aerobic Respiration
8 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation
34 ATP
2 ATP Lost
36 Net Total ATP
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2 mins
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
Electron Transport Chain
Oxygen is Final Electron Acceptor
Proton Pump
Proton Motive Force
ATP Synthase
1 NADH 3 ATP
1 FADH2 2 ATP
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2 mins
Anaerobic Respiration
Cytosol
Glucose
Glycolysis
Substrate-level ATP Phosphorylation
2 NADH
2 Net ATP
2 Pyruvate
Fermentation
NAD+ Regeneration
Waste Byproduct
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2 mins
Aerobic Respiration
Mitochondrial Matrix
2 Pyruvate
Pyruvate Decarboxylation
2 NADH
2 Acetyl-CoA
Krebs Cycle
6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 Substrate Level ATPs
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1 min
Niemann-Pick Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Sphingomyelinase Deficiency
More Common in Ashkenazi Jewish Population
Signs and Symptoms
Cherry Red Spot on Macula
Hepatosplenomegaly
Neurodegeneration
Diagnosis
Foam Cells
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1 min
Tay-Sachs Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Hexosaminidase A Deficiency
Increased GM2 Ganglioside
More Common in Ashkenazi Jewish Population
Signs and Symptoms
Cherry Red Spot on Macula
Neurodegeneration
Developmental Delay
Diagnosis
Onion Skin Lysosomes
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1 min
Fabry's Disease
Pathophysiology
X-linked Recessive
Alpha-galactosidase A Deficiency
Increased Ceramide trihexoside
Early Signs and Symptoms
Decreased Sweating (Hypohidrosis)
Angiokeratoma
Episodic Peripheral Neuropathy
Late Signs and Symptoms
Cardiovascular Disease
Renal Failure
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1 min
Krabbe Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Galactocerebrosidase Deficiency
Increased Psychosine
Signs and Symptoms
Developmental Delay
Peripheral Neuropathy
Optic Atrophy
Diagnosis
Globoid Cells
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1 min
Gauchers Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Beta Glucocerebrosidase Deficiency
Diagnosis
Lipid-laden Macrophages
Crumpled Tissue Paper
Signs and Symptoms
Osteoporosis
Bone Crises
Aseptic Necrosis of Femur
Erlenmeyer Flask Deformity
Hepatosplenomegaly
Pancytopenia
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2 mins
G6PD Deficiency
X-linked Recessive
Hemolytic Anemia
Inflammatory Response
Fava Beans
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Anti TB Drugs
Heinz Bodies
Bite Cells
Prevalent Among African Americans due to Increased Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
G6PD Mechanism
Turns NADP+ to NADPH
NADPH Used by Glutathione Reductase
Detoxifies Free Radicals and Peroxides
X-linked Recessive
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2 mins
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Mechanism and Deficiency
Mechanism
Cobalamin
Large reserve pool in the liver
Homocysteine to methionine
Methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA
Deficiency Signs and Symptoms
Macrocytic Megaloblastic Anemia
Hypersegmented Neutrophils
Neurologic defects
Posterior column
Lateral corticospinal tract
Spinocerebellar tract
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5 mins
Vitamin C Mechanism and Deficiency
Mechanism
Ascorbic acid
Antioxidant
Protects Against Free Radicals
Keeps Iron in Reduced State
Hydroxylation of Proline and Lysine
Necessary for Dopamine B Hydroxylase
Deficiency Signs and Symptoms
Scurvy
Swollen Gums
Bruising
Poor Wound Healing
Hemarthrosis
Perifollicular Hemorrhages
Anemia
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4 mins
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency Causes
Causes
Vegans
Pernicious Anemia
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Malabsorption
Sprue
Enteritis
Crohn's Disease
Diphyllobothrium latum
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4 mins
Vitamin K
Sources
Dark Green Leafy Vegetables
Synthesized by Intestinal Flora
Mechanism
Activated by Epoxide Reductase
Gamma Carboxylation of Glutamate
Activation of Clotting Factors II, VII, IX, X, Protein C and S
Considerations
Deficiency with Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
Neonatal Hemorrhage with Increased PT and aPTT
Warfarin is a Vitamin K Antagonist
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4 mins

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