Andrew Shared "Neuro" - 22 Picmonics

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Neuro

Meningioma
Epidemiology
Most Common Adult Primary Brain Tumor
pathology
Benign
Originate from Arachnoid Villi
Dural Attachment
Parasagittal
Clinical Manifestations
Contralateral Leg Weakness
Seizures
Diagnosis
Psammoma Bodies
Calcifications
Increased Bone Density
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3 mins
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Arylsulfatase A Deficiency
Increased Cerebroside Sulfate
Signs and Symptoms
Demyelination
Ataxia
Dementia
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1 min
Krabbe Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Galactocerebrosidase Deficiency
Increased Psychosine
Signs and Symptoms
Developmental Delay
Peripheral Neuropathy
Optic Atrophy
Diagnosis
Globoid Cells
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1 min
Nerve Palsies - Ulnar Claw
Nerve
Distal Ulnar Nerve
Causes
Fracture Hook of Hamate (distal injury)
Cyclists
Compression Guyon's Canal
Functional Deficit
Unable to Extend 4th and 5th Digits
Presentation
Hand Resembles Ulnar Claw on Extension
Complications
Atrophy of Hypothenar Eminence
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1 min
Meniere's Disease
Mechanism
Excess Endolymph
Signs and Symptoms
Tinnitus
One-sided Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Vertigo
Nausea and Vomiting
Considerations
Meclizine (Antivert)
Low Salt Diet
Surgery
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2 mins
Craniopharyngioma
Hypopituitary
Remnants of Rathke's pouch
Tooth-enamel like calcification
Cholesterol crystals
Yellow viscous fluid
Headache
Bitemporal hemianopsia
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1 min
Pilocytic Astrocytoma
Occurs Most Commonly in Kids
Posterior Fossa
Cerebellum
Well Circumscribed
GFAP
Rosenthal Fibers
Eosinophilic Corkscrew Fibers
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1 min
Ependymoma
Occur in Children
Fourth Ventricle
Hydrocephalus
Perivascular Pseudorosettes
Rod Shaped Blepharoplasts
Cauda Equina in Adults
Poor Prognosis
Neurofibromatosis Type II
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2 mins
Oligodendroglioma
Slow growing tumor
Frontal lobe
Chicken Wire Pattern
Fried egg appearance
Calcifications
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31 secs
Schwannoma
Characteristics
Acoustic Schwannoma
Cranial Nerve VIII
Cerebellopontine Angle
S100 Positive
Bilateral Schwannoma in Neurofibromatosis Type 2
Tinnitus
Cranial Nerve V
Affects Corneal Reflex
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2 mins
Glioblastoma Multiforme
Most Common Primary Brain Tumor
Grade 4 Astrocytoma
Can Cross Corpus Callosum
Butterfly Glioma
Pseudo-palisading Tumor Cells
Areas of Necrosis and Hemorrhage
Stain Astrocytes for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
Grave Prognosis
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2 mins
Hemangioblastoma
Most often cerebellar
Associated with Von Hippel-Lindau
Retinal Angiomas
Can produce EPO
Secondary polycythemia
Foamy cells
High vascularity
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58 secs
Medulloblastoma
Pathophysiology
Occur in children
Cerebellum
Fourth ventricle
Diagnosis
Small blue cells
Lots of mitotic figures
Homer Wright Rosettes
Perivascular pseudorosettes
Signs and Symptoms
Hydrocephalus
Ataxia
Wide-based Gait
Treatment
Radiosensitive
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3 mins
Prolactinoma
Pituitary Adenoma
Galactorrhea
Prolactin Inhibits Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
Impotence
Amenorrhea
Bitemporal Hemianopsia
Treat with Dopamine
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2 mins
Pinealoma
Pathophysiology
Melatonin
Superior Colliculi
Obstructs Cerebral Aqueduct
Signs and Symptoms
Obstructive Hydrocephalus
Vomiting
Parinaud's Syndrome
Paralysis of Upward Gaze
Setting Sun Sign
Increased Beta-hCG
Precocious Puberty
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2 mins
Tuberous Sclerosis
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Hamartomas in CNS and Skin
Phakoma
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizures
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma
Adenoma Sebaceum
Shagreen Patch
Ash-leaf Spots
Renal Angiomyolipoma
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
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2 mins
Sturge Weber Syndrome
Pathophysiology
GNAQ Gene
Signs and Symptoms
Port Wine Stain
Arterial Venous Malformation
Leptomeningeal Angiomas
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizures
Pheochromocytoma
Glaucoma
Tram-Track Calcifications
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2 mins
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Chromosome 17
Signs and Symptoms
Neurofibromas
Optic Glioma
Lisch Nodules
Hamartomas
Cafe Au Lait Spots
Scoliosis
Pheochromocytoma
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4 mins
Neurofibromatosis Type 2
Pathophysiology
Autosomal-Dominant
Chromosome 22
Signs and Symptoms
Vestibular Schwannoma
Meningioma
Ependymoma
Cafe Au Lait Spots
Cataracts
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2 mins
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Pathophysiology
Chromosome 3
Presentation
Hemangioblastomas
Medulla, Retina, Cerebellum
Cysts
Kidney, Liver, Pancreas
Develop Bilateral Renal Carcinomas
Pheochromocytomas
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2 mins

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