Microtubules from the spindle apparatus connect to the kinetochores of chromosomes.
The centromere is part of the chromosome that links sister chromatids together. The spindles attach to centromeres through kinetochores.
The kinetochore is a protein structure on the chromatids where the spindle fibers attach to pull sister chromatids apart (or homologous chromosomes in the case of meiosis I).
In meiosis I, homologous chromosome pairs, or tetrads, are lined up at the metaphase plate ready to be split such that each daughter cell gets one of the chromosomes from a homologous pair. Thus, each daughter cell gets one of the parent's chromosomes for each chromosome (1-23), but not both parent's genetic information.
In meiosis II, sister chromatids are lined up at the metaphase plate but may not be exactly genetically identical due to crossing over that occurred during meiosis I.
In mitosis, sister chromatids are lined up at the metaphase plate and are ready to be separated into individual chromatids (that are genetically identical).
Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge.
*Average video play time: 2-3 minutes
Unforgettable characters with concise but impactful videos (2-4 min each)