Transcription factors control which genes are transcribed by binding to promoter sequences on DNA.
A special subarea of the nucleus, the nucleolus, transcribes rRNA. Ribosomal RNA is the majority component of ribosomes, which are responsible for translating RNA into protein.
DNA is organized as a double-stranded helix and contains the genetic information of the cell and organism.
RNA is transcribed from DNA and is single-stranded. It is used as a template for translation, and in eukaryotes the non-coding regions are excised.
The nuclear membrane is a bilayer, like the mitochondria and cell membrane. All other organelle membranes are single layers.
The membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum, which assists in protein synthesis, folding, and transport.
The nucleus is surrounded by cytosol, which is the intracellular fluid of cells that fills up the space not filled by organelles and molecules.
The membrane has nuclear pores allowing for the transport of proteins and/or RNA in and out of the nucleus.
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