A DNA silencer region is an area that represses DNA transcription by being antagonistic to promoter regions.
Transcription factors bind the silencer region, and these are called repressors. They reduce the ability of polymerase to bind to the DNA promoter region.
The result of binding the DNA silencer region is decreased transcription.
Co-factors can bind to enzmyes, known as factors, and deactivate them when transcription isn't needed for a certain gene.
Conversely, co-factors can activate factors also and increase transcription. Many organic co-factors are vitamins.
The DNA enhancer region is a location in direct contrast to the silencing region. It is an agonist of the promoter region and assists in polymerase binding the promoter.
Transcription factors bind the enhancer region and indirectly help recruit polymerase and other transcription factors.
The activated of an enhancer region results in increased transcription.
Both enhancer and silencer regions can be several hundred thousand base pairs upstream or downstream from the promoter region where RNA polymerase actually binds.
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