These modifications occur in the nucleus because the mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus.
mRNA splicing allows for the creation of one continuous mRNA that is full of coding regions.
Introns are the non-coding regions, or "junk" regions, that are cut out of mRNA.
Exons are the coding regions of mRNA that are joined together during splicing.
In alternate splicing, some exons are kept resulting in two or more protein isoforms from one gene.
The 5' cap is a modified guanine that prevents RNases from damaging the new mRNA.
The 3' Poly A tail is a series of adenine nucleotides that create a buffer zone in the event of accidental exonuclease activity at the end of the mRNA.
The mRNA is transported to the cytosol after modifications for protein synthesis.
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