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Nephrology & Urology | Physician Assistant School Study Aid


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Fundamentals of Renal Physiology
15 Picmonics to Learn | 28 mins

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Renal Corpuscle
Characteristics
Arterioles
Glomerulus
Capillaries
Fenestrations
Plasma Solutes and Other Small Molecules Become Ultrafiltrate
Bowman's Capsule Encapsulates Glomerulus
2 mins
Proximal Tubule
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water Follows Na+
Most Of Glucose Reabsorbed
Most Of Amino Acids Reabsorbed
Bicarbonate Exchanged For H+
Drugs and Toxins Excreted
Filtrate Osmolarity Same As Plasma
Leads To Loop Of Henle
2 mins
Loop of Henle
Characteristics
Descending Limb
Water Follows Na+
Medullary Hypertonicity
Increased Water Reabsorption
Vasa Recta
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Ascending Limb
Reabsorbs Na+, K+, Cl-
Decreased Concentration of Filtrate
Impermeable to Water
Distal Tubule
2 mins
Distal Tubule
Characteristics
Hormonally Regulated
Aldosterone Causes Na+ Reabsorption
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water follows Na+
Parathyroid Hormone Causes Ca2+ Reabsorption
Leads to Collecting Duct
1 min
Collecting Duct
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorption via Passive Transport
Vasopressin Causes Water reabsorption
Concentrates Filtrate
2 mins
High Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Atria Release Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Vasodilation
Antagonizes Aldosterone
Na+ and Water Excreted
1 min
Low Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Posterior Pituitary Releases Vasopressin
Vasoconstriction
Adrenal Cortex Releases Aldosterone
Increased Na+ and H2O Reabsorption
1 min
Blood Acid-Base Control
Characteristics
In a State of Acidemia
Medullary Chemoreceptors Control Ventilation Rate
Expulsion of CO2 through Lungs Increases pH
Bicarbonate Reabsorption from the Kidney Increases pH
Kidney Excretion of H+ Increases pH
2 mins
Ejaculation Pathway
SEVEn UP
Seminiferous Tubules
Epididymis
Vas Deferens
Ejaculatory Ducts
Urethra
Penis
1 min
Renal Clearance
Concepts
Estimates Volume of Substance Cleared by Kidney Per Unit Time
Clearance of Creatinine Used to Estimate GFR
Equation
Urine Concentration of Substance X (Ux)
Times Urine Flow Rate
Over Plasma Concentration of Substance X
2 mins
Filtration
Filtration
Glomerulus
Creatinine Clearance
Filtration Fraction
Fractional Excretion
Regulation
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Prostaglandins
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS)
Tubuloglomerular Feedback
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Antidiuretic Hormone
Norepinephrine
Dopamine
3 mins
Effective Renal Plasma Flow
Calculation
Para-Aminohippuric Acid (PAH)
Formula (UV/P)
Estimate
RPF/1-Hct=Renal Blood Flow
1 min
Angiotensin II Synthesis
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Juxtaglomerular Cells
Mesangial Cells
Macula Densa
Distal Tubule
KEY MEDIATORS
Angiotensinogen
Secreted from Liver
Renin
Secreted from Juxtaglomerular Cells
Catalyzes Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)
Pulmonary Capillaries
Catalyzes Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II
3 mins
Angiotensin II Effects
Effects On Vasculature
Increases Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction
Increases Blood Pressure
Effects on Kidney
Efferent Arteriole Vasoconstriction
Increases GFR
Proximal Tubule
Sodium and Water Reabsorption
Adrenal Cortex
Increases Aldosterone Secretion
Effects on CNS
Stimulates Posterior Pituitary Gland to Secrete Vasopressin (ADH)
Stimulates Thirst in Hypothalamus
2 mins
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) Regulators
Activators
Hypotension
Hypovolemia
Decreased NaCl Delivery to Macula Densa
Sympathetic Stimuli
Key Mediators
Angiotensin II
Aldosterone
Antidiuretic Hormone
Negative Feedback
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Brain Natriuretic Peptide
2 mins

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