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Biochemistry | Physician Assistant School Study Aid


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Metabolic Pathways
8 Picmonics to Learn | 26 mins

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Glycolysis
Characteristics
Glucose
Hexokinase or Glucokinase
Glucose-6-phosphate
Fructose-6-phosphate
Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Aldolase
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
3-phosphoglycerate
2-phosphoglycerate
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
Pyruvate Kinase
Pyruvate
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Acetyl-CoA
4 mins
Gluconeogenesis
OVERVIEW
Produces Glucose from Non-Carbohydrate Substrates
Upregulated by Glucagon and Cortisol
PATHWAY
Pyruvate
Pyruvate Carboxylase
Oxaloacetate
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Carboxykinase
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
Fructose-6-phosphate
Glucose-6-phosphate
Glucose 6-phosphatase
Glucose
Clinical Relevance
Von Gierke Disease
4 mins
Fructose Metabolism
Liver Fructose Metabolism
Fructose
Fructokinase
Fructose-1-Phosphate
Aldolase B
DHAP
Glyceraldehyde
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
2 mins
Lipid Metabolism and Ketogenesis
Lipid Metabolism
Acetyl-CoA
Biotin Cofactor
Malonyl-CoA
Fatty Acids
Triglycerides
Glycerol
DHAP
Acetoacetyl-CoA
HMG-CoA
HMG-CoA Reductase
Mevalonate
Cholesterol
Ketogenesis
Acetoacetate
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate
4 mins
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
Characteristics
Acetyl-CoA + Oxaloacetate
Citric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Produces NADH
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid
Produces NADH
Succinyl CoA
Produces GTP
Succinate
Produces FADH2
Fumarate
Uses Water
Malate
Produces NADH
Oxaloacetate
4 mins
Urea Cycle
Mitochondria
N-Acetylglutamate
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I
NH3 + CO2
Carbamoyl Phosphate
Ornithine Transcarbamylase
Citrulline
Cytosol
Aspartate
Argininosuccinate
Fumarate
Arginine
H2O to Urea
Ornithine
3 mins
G6PD Mechanism
Turns NADP+ to NADPH
NADPH Used by Glutathione Reductase
Detoxifies Free Radicals and Peroxides
X-linked Recessive
2 mins
Ethanol Metabolism
Characteristics
Zero Order Elimination
Pathway
Ethanol
Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Produces NADH
Acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase
Produces NADH
Acetate
Thiokinase
Acetyl-CoA
Drugs
Fomepizole
Disulfiram
3 mins

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