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Physiology | Physician Assistant School Study Aid


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Digestion & Absorption
9 Picmonics to Learn | 17 mins

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GI Absorption
Stomach
Alcohol
Duodenum
Iron
Jejunum
Folate
Terminal Ileum
Vitamin B12
Bile Resorption
1 min
Oral Cavity
Characteristics
Mouth
Mechanical Digestion
Salivary Amylase Begins Carbohydrate Breakdown
Lingual Lipase Begins Lipid Breakdown
Esophagus
Bolus
Peristalsis
1 min
Stomach Digestion
Characteristics
Chief Cells Secrete Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen Turned to Pepsin By H+
Protein Breakdown Begins
Mucous Cells Secrete Mucus and Bicarbonate
G Cells Secrete Gastrin
Gastrin Stimulates Parietal Cell HCl Release
Parietal Cells Secrete Intrinsic Factor
2 mins
Small Intestine Digestion
Brush border enzymes
Pancreatic Enzymes are secreted via a Duct
Pancreas secretes bicarbonate
Brush Border activates Pancreatic Trypsin
Trypsin activates Chymotrypsin
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin digest Proteins
Gallbladder Releases Bile
Pancreatic Lipase breaks down Lipids
Goblet cells secrete mucus
Pancreatic Amylase breaks down Carbohydrates
Pancreatic Nucleases breakdown DNA/RNA
Digestion occurs in the Duodenum
2 mins
Small Intestine Absorption
Characteristics
Carbohydrates Undergo Active Transport
Amino Acids Undergo Active Transport
Small Lipids Undergo Passive Diffusion
Epithelial Cells
Intestinal Capillaries
Hepatic Portal Transports Nutrients
Liver
Large Lipids Transported as Chylomicrons
Lacteals Transport Chylomicrons
2 mins
Large Intestine
Characteristics
Colon
Electrolyte Reabsorption
Water Reabsorption
Microflora Produce Vitamins
Rectum Stores Feces
1 min
Bile
Synthesis and Circulation
Synthesized Continuously By Hepatocytes
Cholesterol 7 Alpha-Hydroxylase Rate Limiting Step
Stored In Gallbladder
Secreted Into Duodenum
Bile Salts Reabsorbed In Terminal Ileum
Returned To Liver Via Portal Circulation
Composition
Bilirubin
Bile Salts
Cholesterol And Phospholipids
Ions And Water
4 mins
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Secreted by I Cells
Duodenum and Jejunum
Physiology
Increase Pancreatic Secretions
Increase Gallbladder Contraction
Induce Relaxation of Sphincter of Oddi
Decrease Gastric Emptying
Regulation
Increased by Fatty Acids and Amino Acids
1 min
Somatostatin
Secreted by D Cells
Pancreas
GI Tract
Action
Decrease Secretion of Gastric Acid and Pepsinogen
Decrease Pancreatic and Small Intestine Fluid Secretion
Decrease Gallbladder Contraction
Decrease Glucagon and Insulin Secretion
Regulation
Secretion is Increased by Acid
Secretion is Decreased by Vagal Stimulation
Clinical Use
Octreotide
Carcinoid Syndrome
Variceal Bleeds
2 mins

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