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Pathology | Physician Assistant School Study Aid


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Labor & Delivery Disorders
13 Picmonics to Learn | 26 mins

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Cesarean Section - Indications
Maternal Indications
Active Genital Herpes Infection
Cervical Cancer
Eclampsia (Preeclampsia)
History of Uterine Surgery
History of C-section (Vertical)
Fetal Indications
Malpresentation
Fetal Distress
Cord Compression/Prolapse
Other Indications
Failed Vaginal Delivery
Cephalopelvic Disproportion
Abruptio Placentae or Placenta Previa
2 mins
Placenta Previa
Mechanism
Placenta Covers Cervical Os
Assessment
Painless
Bright Red Vaginal Bleeding
Interventions
Stable Fetus
Bed Rest
Observation
Unstable Fetus
C-section Delivery
Considerations
Risk for Shock
Magnesium Sulfate
2 mins
Abruptio Placentae
Mechanism
Premature Separation of Placenta
Assessment
Tearing Pain
Bleeding (Often Concealed)
Rigid Uterus
Contractions
Interventions
Prepare for Vaginal Delivery
Considerations
Increased Risks for Neonate
Rh (Rhesus) Incompatibilities
Increased Risk for Shock
Monitor Fetal Heart Rate
2 mins
Mechanism of Labor
Engagement
Descent
Flexion
Internal Rotation
Extension
External Rotation (Restitution)
Expulsion of Infant
2 mins
Induction of Labor
Indications
Premature Rupture of Membranes
Danger to Fetus or Mother
Prolonged Gestation
Contraindications
Placenta Abnormalities
Transverse Fetal Position
Prolapsed Umbilical Cord
Active Genital Herpes Infection
Uterine Muscle Incision
Hemorrhage
3 mins
True vs. False Labor
Bloody Show
True Labor
Regular, Strong Contractions
Progressive Effacement and Dilation
Engagement of Presenting Part
False Labor
Irregular Contractions
Cervix Soft
No Engagement of Presenting Part
2 mins
Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM)
Pathophysiology
Rupture > 1 Hour Before Labor
Risk Factors
Infection
PROM History
Incompetent Cervix
Diagnosis
Fern Test
Nitrazine Paper Test
Ultrasound
Treatment
Consider Tocolytics
Consider Antibiotics
< 34 Weeks Gestation
Corticosteroids
> 34 Weeks Gestation
Induction of Labor
2 mins
Prolapsed Umbilical Cord
Mechanism
Cord Prolapses
Signs and Symptoms
Visualization of Cord
Prolonged or Variable Decelerations
Considerations
Hips Elevated
Insert 2 fingers in Vagina
Saline Towel on Cord
Oxygen
2 mins
Incompetent Cervix
Mechanism
Premature Cervical Dilation
Assessment
Recurring Miscarriage
Short Cervix
Considerations
Cervical Cerclage
Rest
Labor
1 min
Decelerations (and Accelerations) Overview
VEAL CHOP
Variable Deceleration
Cord Compression
Early Deceleration
Head Compression
Acceleration
Okay
Late Deceleration
Placental Insufficiency
2 mins
Early Decelerations
Cause
Fetal Head Compression
Occurs During
Uterine Contractions
Placement of Internal Mode of Monitoring
Vaginal Examination
Fundal Pressure
Considerations
Normal Pattern
1 min
Variable Decelerations
Mechanism
Umbilical Cord Compression
Occurs During
Abnormal Cord Position
Considerations
Transition Phase
Interventions
Oxygen with Non-Rebreather (8-10 L/min)
Change Maternal Position
Discontinue Oxytocin
2 mins
Late Decelerations
Cause
Uteroplacental Insufficiency
Occurs During
Disruption of Oxygen Transfer to Fetus
Considerations
Abnormal Pattern
Interventions
Discontinue Oxytocin
Oxygen with Non-Rebreather (8-10 L/min)
Side-lying Position
Elevate Legs
Increase Rate of IV Solution
2 mins

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