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PANCE Prep Pearls: 3rd Ed. (2019)
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Eye Disorders

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PANCE Prep Pearls: 3rd Ed. (2019) | Physician Assistant (PA) School Study Aid

Eye Disorders
17 Picmonics to Learn | 34 mins
Retinoblastoma
Characteristics
Loss of Heterozygosity
Chromosome 13
Children
Presentation
Leukocoria
Strabismus
Vision Loss
Association
Osteosarcoma
Diagnosis
Genetic Testing
Management
Cryotherapy
Photocoagulation
Chemotherapy or Radiation
Surgery
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3 mins
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Mechanism
Dry (nonexudative)
Wet (exudative)
Signs and Symptoms
Scotomas
Blurred, Darkened Vision
Loss of Central Vision
Distortion of Vision
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
Low-vision Assistive Devices
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2 mins
Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Characteristics
Increased Capillary Permeability and Leakage
Often Asymptomatic
Fundoscopic Findings
Retinal Microaneurysms
Flame-shaped Hemorrhages
Cotton Wool Spots
Hard Exudates
Macular Edema
Management
Treat Diabetes
Laser Photocoagulation
Bevacizumab
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3 mins
Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Characteristics
Angiogenesis
Increased VEGF
Asymptomatic Until Late-stage
Fundoscopic Findings
Vitreous Hemorrhage
Retinal Detachment
Glaucoma
Findings of Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Management
Laser Photocoagulation
Surgery
Bevacizumab
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2 mins
Hypertensive Retinopathy
Etiology
Chronic Hypertension
Fundoscopic Findings
Flame Hemorrhages
Arteriovenous Nicking
Retinal Microaneurysms
Cotton Wool Spots
Macular Star
Papilledema
Treatment
Lower Blood Pressure
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2 mins
Detached Retina
Assessment
Flashes of Light
Floaters
Curtain Like Shadow
Interventions
Eye Patch
Bed Rest
Surgical Emergency
Considerations
No Vigorous Activity
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2 mins
Uveitis Overview
Characteristics
Uvea
Middle Layer of Eye
Iris
Ciliary Body
Choroid
Location
Anterior Uveitis
Inflammation of Iris or Ciliary Body
Posterior Uveitis
Inflammation of Vitreous, Choroid, or Retina
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2 mins
Cataract
Mechanism
Age-related
Assessment
No Pain
Cloudy Opaque Lens
Decreased Visual Acuity
Occurs Gradually
Treatment
Surgery
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1 min
Visual Field Defects - Anatomy Overview
Optic Nerve
Vision Loss in One Eye
Optic Chiasm
Bitemporal Hemianopia - Both Eyes Outside Vision Loss
Optic Tract
Homonymous Hemianopia - Both Eyes Same Side
Dorsal Optic Radiation
Lower Quadrantic Vision Loss
Meyer's Loop
Upper Quadrantic Vision Loss
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2 mins
Visual Field Defects - Homonymous Hemianopia
Visual Field Abnormality
Homonymous Hemianopia
Vision Loss - Both Eyes Same Side
Location of Lesion
Optic Tract
Parietal Lobe
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1 min
Visual Field Defects - Bitemporal Hemianopia
Visual Field Abnormality
Bitemporal Hemianopia
Both Eyes Outside Vision Loss
Tunnel Vision
Location of Lesion
Optic Chiasm
Causes
Suprasellar Compression
Pituitary Adenoma
Craniopharyngioma
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1 min
Closed-Angle Glaucoma
Primary
Lens causes pupillary obstruction
Aqueous humor builds behind iris
Iris bends forward, obstructing trabecular mesh
Secondary
Hypoxia Causes Neovascular Proliferation
Contraction and obstruction of trabecular mesh
Chronic disease (Crone)
Asymptomatic
Acute Disease
Eye pain and blindness
Rock-hard eye
Headache
Emergency
Epinephrine contraindicated
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2 mins
Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma (PACG - Acute)
Mechanism
Rapid Increase in IOP
Signs and Symptoms
Rapid Onset
Pain
Blurred Vision
Halos Around Lights
Nausea and Vomiting
IOP over 30 mm Hg
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
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1 min
Open-Angle Glaucoma
Humor Has Access to Trabecular Meshwork
Presentation
Painless
African American
Elderly
Positive Family History
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Most Common Form of Glaucoma
Unknown Mechanism
Secondary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Blocked Trabecular Meshwork (With Open-Angle)
WBCs
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
Retinal Products
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2 mins
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG - Chronic)
Mechanism
Flow of Aqueous Humor Slowed
Signs and Symptoms
Slow Onset
No Pain
Tunnel Vision
IOP 22-32mm Hg
Considerations
Drug Therapy
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1 min
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion
Etiology
Atherosclerosis
Atrial Fibrillation
Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis
Clinical Features
Sudden Painless Monocular Vision Loss
Descending Curtain
Fundoscopic Findings
Retinal Plaques
Grayish Retinal Discoloration
Cherry Red Spot on Macula
Diagnosis
Ultrasound
Interventions
Ocular Massage
Reduce Intraocular Pressure
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3 mins
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Etiologies
Hypercoagulability
Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus
Clinical Features
Non-Ischemic
Mild to Moderate Vision Loss
Sparse Dot-blot and Flame Hemorrhages
Ischemic
Sudden, Painless Vision Loss
"Blood and Thunder" Appearance
Cotton Wool Spots
Papilledema
Interventions
Observation if Non-Ischemic
Laser Photocoagulation
VEGF Inhibitors
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3 mins

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