Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Physician Assistant Students

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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) | Physician Assistant School Study Aid


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Teratogens
Medications
ACE-Inhibitors: Kidney Damage
Aminoglycosides: Ototoxicity
Lithium: Ebstein Anomaly
Folate Antagonists: Neural Tube Defects
Substance Abuse
Cocaine: Low Birth Weight
Cocaine: Placental Abruption
Other
Vitamin A Excess: Spontaneous Abortion
Vitamin A Excess: Cleft Palate
X-Rays: Intellectual Disability
4 mins
ACE Inhibitors
-Pril Suffix
Indications
Hypertension
CHF
Diabetic Nephropathy
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits ACE
Decreases GFR
Inhibits Constriction of Efferent Arteriole
Side Effect
Increased Bradykinin
Cough
1 min
Aminoglycosides
Drug Names
Gentamicin
Neomycin for Bowel Surgery Prep
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Inhibit Formation of Initiation Complex
Cause Misreading of mRNA
Require O2 for Uptake
Resistance
Resistance by Transferase Enzymes
Acetylation
Phosphorylation
Adenylation
Indications
Gram-Negative Rod Infections
Synergistic with B-Lactam Antibiotics
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity Especially When Used with Cephalosporins
Ototoxicity Especially When Used with Loop Diuretics
Teratogen
5 mins
Lithium
Indications
Bipolar Disorder
Mechanism of Action
Mood Stabilizer
Unknown Mechanism
Side Effects
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Hypothyroidism
Movement (Tremor)
Heart Block
Contraindication
Pregnancy (Ebstein's Anomaly)
1 min
Propylthiouracil (PTU) and Methimazole (MMI)
Indications
Hyperthyroidism
Mechanism
Inhibits Thyroid Peroxidase
PTU Blocks Peripheral Conversion of T4 to T3
Side Effects
Agranulocytosis
Skin Rash
Hepatotoxicity (PTU)
Teratogen (MMI)
1 min
Tetracycline Toxicities
Inhibition of Bone Growth in Children
Teratogen
Discoloration of Teeth
Photosensitivity
GI Distress
2 mins
Warfarin
Mechanism of Action
Interferes with Vitamin K-dependent Clotting Factors
Extrinsic Pathway
Bridge with Heparin
Indications
Chronic Anticoagulation
Side Effects
Bleeding
Necrosis
Cytochrome P450
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Antidote
FFP + Vitamin K
2 mins
Gestational Diabetes
Signs and Symptoms
Usually Asymptomatic
Fetal Macrosomia
Polyhydramnios
Diagnosis
Glucose Intolerance After 24 Weeks Gestation
3-hr 100g Glucose Tolerance Test
Treatment
Diet and Exercise
Close Glucose Monitoring
Insulin
Ultrasound (or Nonstress Test (NST))
Delivery
2 mins
Vitamin A (Retinol) Toxicity
Signs and Symptoms
Alopecia
Vision Changes
Headache
Skin Changes
Hyperlipidemia
Hepatotoxicity
Arthralgias
Teratogen
Cleft palate
Cardiac Abnormalities
3 mins

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