Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Physician Assistant (PA) Students

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) | Physician Assistant (PA) School Study Aid


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16 Picmonics to Learn | 31 mins

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Baclofen
Mechanism
GABA-B Receptor Agonist
Spinal Cord
Indications
Spasticity
Dystonia
Multiple Sclerosis
Side Effects
CNS Depression
Nausea
Considerations
Taper Gradually
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1 min
Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)
Mechanism
Centrally-Acting Muscle Relaxer
Act on Alpha and Gamma Motor Neurons
Related to Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
Uses
Muscle Spasms
Back Pain
Side Effects/Interactions
MAO Inhibitors
Serotonin Syndrome
Drowsiness
Arrhythmia
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3 mins
Malignant Hyperthermia
Inheritance
Autosomal-Dominant
Pathophysiology and causes
Ryanodine Receptor 1 Mutation
Inhaled Anesthetics
Succinylcholine
Symptoms
Autonomic Instability
Muscle Rigidity
Treatment
Dantrolene
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2 mins
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
FEVER Acronym
Fever
Encephalopathy
Vital Signs Unstable
Elevated Enzymes
Rigidity of muscles
Reversal Agent
D2 Agonists
Bromocriptine
Dantrolene
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2 mins
Malignant Hyperthermia vs. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome vs. Serotonin Syndrome
Autonomic Instability
Muscle Rigidity
Malignant Hyperthermia
Ryanodine Receptor 1 Mutation
Inhaled Anesthetics
Succinylcholine
Dantrolene
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Antidopaminergic Medications
Hyporeflexia
Myoglobinuria
Dantrolene
Serotonin Syndrome
Serotonergic Medications
Hyperreflexia
Clonus
Cyproheptadine
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3 mins
Opioids Overview
Indications
Pain
Weaning
Cough
Diarrhea
Mechanism of Action
Agonists at Mu (μ), Kappa (Κ), and Delta (δ) Receptors
Decrease Synaptic Transmission
Side Effects
Respiratory Depression
Addiction
Miosis
Constipation
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2 mins
Opioid Antidote
Antidote
Naloxone
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28 secs
Naloxone (Narcan)
Mechanism
Competitive Opioid Receptor Antagonist
Indications
Opioid Induced CNS Depression
Side Effects
Severe Nausea and Vomiting
Excitable State
Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms
Considerations
Repeated Dosing Often Required
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1 min
Opioid Abuse and Withdrawal Assessment
Abuse Assessment
Euphoria
Miosis
CNS Depression
Abuse Withdrawal
Yawning
Gooseflesh
Sweating
Rhinorrhea
Kicking Movements
Consideration
Naloxone
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1 min
Buprenorphine-Naloxone (Suboxone)
Mechanism of Action
Combination Drug
Partial Opioid Receptor Agonist (Buprenorphine)
Opioid Receptor Antagonist (Naloxone)
Indication
Opioid Use Disorder
Side Effects
CNS Depression
Diaphoresis
Hypotension
Considerations
Low Abuse Potential
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2 mins
Codeine
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Mild to Moderate Pain
Cough Suppressant
Side Effects
Sedation
Constipation
Miosis
Considerations
Close Monitoring When Breast Feeding
Often Combined with Non-Opioids
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2 mins
Oxycodone
Mechanism of Action
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indication
Refractory Pain
Side Effects
Respiratory Depression
Constipation
CNS Depression
Considerations
Addiction
Naloxone
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2 mins
Fentanyl
Mechanism of Action
Opioid Receptor Agonist
High Potency
Indications
Anesthesia Induction
Chronic Pain
Breakthrough Pain
Side Effects
CNS Depression
Respiratory Depression
Constipation
Miosis
Considerations
Addiction
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3 mins
Morphine
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Pain
Myocardial Infarction
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
CNS Depression
Biliary Colic
Constipation
Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Pupillary Constriction
Hypotension
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2 mins
Meperidine (Demerol)
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Moderate to Severe Pain
Post Anesthesia Shivering
Side Effects
Tremors
Constipation
CNS Depression
Sedation
Considerations
Short Term Administration
Increased Risk Serotonin Syndrome
Does NOT cause Miosis
Renal Failure Increases Toxicity Risk
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2 mins
Alcohol Abuse Interventions
Withdrawal
Reduce Environmental Stimuli
Antianxiety Medications
Vitamin Supplements
Seizure Precautions
Suicide Precautions
Fever
Considerations
Identify Support Systems
Group Therapy
Disulfiram
Naltrexone
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2 mins

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