Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Physician Assistant Students

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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) | Physician Assistant School Study Aid


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Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia Causes
Intrinsic Hemolytic
Hereditary Spherocytosis
RBC Enzyme Deficiency
Hemoglobin C Defect
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Sickle Cell Anemia
Extrinsic Hemolytic
Autoimmune
Microangiopathic
Mechanical Destruction
Prosthetic Cardiac Valves
Infection
Snake Venom
2 mins
Warm Agglutinin Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (W-AIHA)
Pathophysiology
Most Common Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
IgG Coats RBCs at Warm Temperatures
Fc Portion of IgG Recognized By Macrophages
Extravascular Hemolysis
Medications
Alpha Methyldopa
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Diagnosis
Positive Coombs Test
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Splenectomy
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Rituximab
3 mins
Cold Agglutinin Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (C-AIHA)
Pathophysiology
IgM Binds to RBCs at Cold Temperatures (28-31C)
Intravascular Hemolysis
Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
Infectious Mononucleosis
Lymphomas and CLL
Symptoms
Acral Cyanosis with Cold Exposure
Blue Fingers and Toes
Diagnosis
Positive Coombs Test
Treatment
Avoid Cold
Rituximab
+/- Fludarabine
3 mins
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Pathophysiology
Bleeding state
Activation of clotting factors
Deficiency of clotting factors
Causes
Sepsis
Trauma
Obstetric complications
Acute Pancreatitis
Malignancy
Nephrotic Syndrome
Transfusion
2 mins
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Inhibition or deficiency of ADAMTS 13
vWF Multimers are not degraded
Microthrombi (and Emboli)
Symptoms
FAT RN Pentad
Fever
Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Dysfunction
Neurologic Abnormalities (Altered Mental status)
Treatment
Plasmapheresis
Corticosteroids
Splenectomy
2 mins
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Children
Pathophysiology
Preceded by Acute Diarrheal Illness
Endothelial Damage
Classic Triad of Symptoms
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia (MAHA)
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Failure
Labs
Helmet cells
LDH
Treatment
Dialysis
Supportive
2 mins
Severe Preeclampsia
Mechanism of Action
Vasospasm and Decreased Organ Perfusion
Intravascular Coagulation
Increased Permeability and Capillary Leakage
Signs and Symptoms
Hypertension
Proteinuria or End-Organ Dysfunction
HELLP Syndrome
Hepatic Dysfunction and Hemolysis
Elevated Liver Enzymes
Low Platelet Counts
3 mins
WBC Differential Lab Value
White Blood Cells (WBC)
5-10 (5,000-10,000)
Leukocyte Differential
Neutrophils (50%-70%)
Bands (2%-5%)
Segs (50%-70%)
Lymphocytes (20%-40%)
Monocytes (4%-8%)
Eosinophils (2%-4%)
Basophils (0.5%-1.5%)
2 mins
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
Both B and T Cell Deficiency
Recurrent Viral, Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoal Infections
Defective Interleukin (IL) 2 Receptor
X-Linked
Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
Failure to Synthesize MHC II Antigens
Treat with Bone Marrow Transplant
2 mins

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