Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Physician Assistant (PA) Students

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) | Physician Assistant (PA) School Study Aid


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10 Picmonics to Learn | 18 mins

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Oral Cavity
Characteristics
Mouth
Mechanical Digestion
Salivary Amylase Begins Carbohydrate Breakdown
Lingual Lipase Begins Lipid Breakdown
Esophagus
Bolus
Peristalsis
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1 min
Stomach Digestion
Characteristics
Chief Cells Secrete Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen Turned to Pepsin By H+
Protein Breakdown Begins
Mucous Cells Secrete Mucus and Bicarbonate
G Cells Secrete Gastrin
Gastrin Stimulates Parietal Cell HCl Release
Parietal Cells Secrete Intrinsic Factor
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2 mins
GI Absorption
Stomach
Alcohol
Duodenum
Iron
Jejunum
Folate
Terminal Ileum
Vitamin B12
Bile Resorption
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1 min
Small Intestine Digestion
Brush border enzymes
Pancreatic Enzymes are secreted via a Duct
Pancreas secretes bicarbonate
Brush Border activates Pancreatic Trypsin
Trypsin activates Chymotrypsin
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin digest Proteins
Gallbladder Releases Bile
Pancreatic Lipase breaks down Lipids
Goblet cells secrete mucus
Pancreatic Amylase breaks down Carbohydrates
Pancreatic Nucleases breakdown DNA/RNA
Digestion occurs in the Duodenum
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2 mins
Small Intestine Absorption
Characteristics
Carbohydrates Undergo Active Transport
Amino Acids Undergo Active Transport
Small Lipids Undergo Passive Diffusion
Epithelial Cells
Intestinal Capillaries
Hepatic Portal Transports Nutrients
Liver
Large Lipids Transported as Chylomicrons
Lacteals Transport Chylomicrons
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2 mins
Pancreas
Characteristics
Acinar Cells Release Digestive Enzymes
Ductal Epithelial Cells Release Bicarbonate
Islets of Langerhans
Beta Cells Release Insulin
Alpha Cells Release Glucagon
Delta Cells Release Somatostatin
Somatostatin Inhibits Alpha and Beta Cells
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3 mins
Large Intestine
Characteristics
Colon
Electrolyte Reabsorption
Water Reabsorption
Microflora Produce Vitamins
Rectum Stores Feces
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1 min
Somatostatin
Secreted by D Cells
Pancreas
GI Tract
Action
Decrease Secretion of Gastric Acid and Pepsinogen
Decrease Pancreatic and Small Intestine Fluid Secretion
Decrease Gallbladder Contraction
Decrease Glucagon and Insulin Secretion
Regulation
Secretion is Increased by Acid
Secretion is Decreased by Vagal Stimulation
Clinical Use
Octreotide
Carcinoid Syndrome
Variceal Bleeds
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2 mins
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Secreted by I Cells
Duodenum and Jejunum
Physiology
Increase Pancreatic Secretions
Increase Gallbladder Contraction
Induce Relaxation of Sphincter of Oddi
Decrease Gastric Emptying
Regulation
Increased by Fatty Acids and Amino Acids
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1 min
Insulin Regulation
Master Regulator
Glucose
Incretins Released with Oral Glucose
GLP-1
GIP
Positive Regulators
Beta-2 Receptor Stimulation
M3 Acetylcholine Receptor Stimulation
Negative Regulators
Alpha-2 Receptor Stimulation
Somatostatin
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2 mins

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