Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Physician Assistant (PA) Students

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) | Physician Assistant (PA) School Study Aid


Prev
Page 225 -
24 Picmonics to Learn | 54 mins

Next
Adenocarcinoma of the Lung
Characteristics
Most Common Lung Cancer
Most Common in Nonsmokers
Peripheral Location
KRAS, EGFR, and ALK Mutations
Diagnosis
Glandular Pattern
Often Stains with Mucin
Clinical Features
Presents with Hemoptysis
Clubbing
Treatment
Surgical Resection
Chemotherapy and Radiation
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Trastuzumab
Indications
HER-2+ Breast Cancer
Stomach cancer
Mechanism
Monoclonal antibody against HER-2
Inhibition of Cellular Signaling
Cytotoxicity
Side effects
Cardiotoxicity
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
MEN 2A (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia)
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
RET Gene
Signs and Symptoms
Medullary Thyroid carcinoma
Calcitonin
Parathyroid
Pheochromocytoma
picmonic thumbnail
44 secs
MEN 2B (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia)
Pathophysiology
RET Gene
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
Pheochromocytoma
Marfanoid Body Habitus
Oral Ganglioneuromatosis
picmonic thumbnail
55 secs
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Age 30 to 90 Years
BCR-ABL
9;22 Translocation
Philadelphia Chromosome
Tyrosine Kinase
Low Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK-P)
Splenomegaly
Blast Crisis can Accelerate and Transform to AML or ALL
Imatinib (Gleevec)
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Ages < 15
May Present with Bone Marrow Involvement in Children
Mediastinal Mass in Adolescents
TdT Positive
CALLA Positive
t(12;21) Better Prognosis
Spread to CNS and Testes
Most Responsive to Chemotherapy
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Primary Myelofibrosis
Characteristics
Bone Marrow Fibrosis
Extramedullary Hematopoiesis
JAK2 Kinase Mutation
Symptoms
Fatigue
Weight Loss
Splenomegaly
DIagnosis
Pancytopenia
Dacrocytes (Teardrop Cells)
Dry Tap on Bone Marrow Aspiration
Treatment
Stem Cell Transplantation
Transfusion
Ruxolitinib (JAK2 Inhibitor)
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Polycythemia Vera Disease
Pathophysiology
JAK2 Mutation leading to increased red blood cells
Tyrosine Kinase
Symptoms
Erythromelalgia
Pruritus
Often After Hot Shower
Headache
Treatment
Phlebotomy
Aspirin
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
BRAF Inhibitors
Characteristics
BRAF Proto-oncogene
Serine/Threonine Kinase
V600E Mutation
Indications
Melanoma
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Drugs
Dabrafenib
Vemurafenib
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Imatinib (Gleevec)
Indications
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Inhibitor of BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase
Caused by Philadelphia Chromosome
GI Stromal Tumors
Inhibitor of C-kit Tyrosine Kinase
Toxicity
Fluid Retention
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Burkitt's Lymphoma
Adolescents or young adults
C-myc gene moves next to heavy chain Ig gene
T 8;14
Starry sky appearance
Sheets of lymphocytes with interspersed macrophages
Jaw lesion in endemic (African) form
Pelvis or abdomen in non endemic form (American form)
Associated with EBV
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Neuroblastoma Characteristics and Presentation
Characteristics
Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumor
Neural Crest Cells Origin
Sympathetic Ganglia
Adrenal Glands
Amplification of N-myc Oncogene
Most Common Cancer In Infancy
Clinical Presentation
Abdominal Mass That Can Cross Midline
Gastrointestinal Distress
Metastasis
Raccoon Eyes
Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome
picmonic thumbnail
4 mins
Neuroblastoma Diagnosis and Management
Diagnosis
24-hour Urine Test
Increased Catecholamines
Homovanillic and Vanillylmandelic Acid
Ultrasound
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Biopsy
Pathology
Small Round Blue Cells
Homer-Wright Rosettes
Bombesin Positive
Neuron Specific Enolase Positive
Interventions
Local Excision
Chemotherapy
Radiation
picmonic thumbnail
4 mins
Follicular Lymphoma
Derives from Germinal Center
Occurs in adults
T14;18
BCL 2 overexpression
BCL 2 inhibits apoptosis
Indolent
Generalized lymphadenopathy
Bone marrow involvement
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Gardner Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) + Extraintestinal Benign Tumors
Autosomal Dominant
APC Gene Mutation
Clinical Findings
Desmoid Tumors
Nasal Angiofibromas
Osteomas
Congenital Hypertrophy of Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Dental Abnormalities
Cutaneous Lesions
Adrenal Adenomas
Associations
Thyroid Cancer
Duodenal / Periampullary Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Hepatoblastoma
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Erlotinib
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits EGFR Tyrosine Kinase
Inhibits Progression of G1 to S Phase
Indications
Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Pancreatic Cancer
Side Effects
Rash
Diarrhea
Considerations
Avoid Grapefruit Juice
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Symptoms and Risk Factors
Common Signs and Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Anorexia and Weight Loss
Migratory Superficial Thrombophlebitis
New-Onset Diabetes
Signs/Symptoms Specific to Tumors in the Pancreatic Head
Jaundice
Steatorrhea
White Stool
Palpable but Non-tender Gall Bladder
Risk Factors
Elderly 
Chronic Pancreatitis
Smoking
Alcoholism
Diabetes
picmonic thumbnail
5 mins
Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
CA 19-9
Liver Function Tests for Cholestasis 
Serum Lipase
Ultrasound if Cholestasis Suspected
CT Abdomen
FNA Biopsy if Diagnosis or Resectability Uncertain
Treatment
Whipple if Resectable
Palliative Care if Not Resectable
picmonic thumbnail
4 mins
MEN 1 (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia)
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Menin Mutation (Tumor Suppression Gene)
Chromosome 11
Signs and Symptoms
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors
Pituitary Tumors
Parathyroid Adenomas
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Chromosome 17
Signs and Symptoms
Neurofibromas
Optic Glioma
Lisch Nodules
Hamartomas
Cafe Au Lait Spots
Scoliosis
Pheochromocytoma
picmonic thumbnail
4 mins
Neurofibromatosis Type 2
Pathophysiology
Autosomal-Dominant
Chromosome 22
Signs and Symptoms
Vestibular Schwannoma
Meningioma
Ependymoma
Cafe Au Lait Spots
Cataracts
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Tuberous Sclerosis
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Hamartomas in CNS and Skin
Phakoma
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizures
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma
Adenoma Sebaceum
Shagreen Patch
Ash-leaf Spots
Renal Angiomyolipoma
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Pathophysiology
Chromosome 3
Presentation
Hemangioblastomas
Medulla, Retina, Cerebellum
Cysts
Kidney, Liver, Pancreas
Develop Bilateral Renal Carcinomas
Pheochromocytomas
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Wilms' Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
Cause
Malignant Renal Tumor
Assessment
Abdominal Mass
Hematuria
Fever
Hypertension
Interventions
Nephrectomy
Chemotherapy
Radiation
Considerations
Do Not Palpate Abdomen
Children Under 5 Years Old
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins

Ace Your Physician Assistant (PA) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,210,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Physician Assistant (PA) student study app.

Picmonic for Physician Assistant (PA) covers information that is relevant to your entire Physician Assistant (PA) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the PANCE® or PANRE®, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Physician Assistant (PA) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.

It's worth every penny