Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Physician Assistant (PA) Students

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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) | Physician Assistant (PA) School Study Aid


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23 Picmonics to Learn | 44 mins

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Myasthenia Gravis
Mechanism
Antibodies to Acetylcholine Receptor
Symptoms
Ptosis
Diplopia
Weakness with Muscle Use
Respiratory Death
Thymus Associated
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Plasmapheresis
Thymectomy
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1 min
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Mechanism
Autoantibody to the Presynaptic Calcium Channel on Motor Neurons
Inhibits Acetylcholine (ACh) Release at Neuromuscular Junction
Paraneoplastic Syndrome
Small Cell Lung Cancer
Symptoms
Proximal Muscle Weakness
Improves with Muscle Use
Autonomic Symptoms
Extraocular Muscle Sparing
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2 mins
Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Characteristics/Manifestations
Caused by Antibodies Against Phospholipid-Associated Proteins
Recurrent Thromboembolisms
Recurrent Miscarriage
Most Commonly Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Diagnosis
Anticardiolipin Antibody
Anti-Beta-2-Glycoprotein-1 Antibody
Lupus Anticoagulant
Treatment
Warfarin in Patients with Recurrent Thrombosis
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3 mins
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Mechanism, Treatment and Complications
Mechanism and Characteristics
Systemic Autoimmune Disease
9:1 female to male ratio
Treatment
Glucocorticoids
NSAIDS
Hydroxychloroquine
Cyclophosphamide
Complications
Lupus nephritis
Libman-Sacks Endocarditis
Secondary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
Other
Drug-induced lupus
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2 mins
Antihistone Antibodies
Drug-induced Lupus
SHIPP Acronym
Sulfonamides
Hydralazine
Isoniazid (INH)
Phenytoin
Procainamide
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59 secs
Rheumatoid Arthritis Assessment
Mechanism
Destruction of Connective Tissue and Synovial Membrane
Signs and Symptoms
Inflammation of Joints
Morning Stiffness
Nodules
Joint Deformities
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1 min
Sjögren’s Syndrome
Mechanism
Autoimmune Exocrine Gland Destruction
Symptoms (Classic Triad)
Xerostomia
Xerophthalmia
Arthritis
Diagnosis
Anti SS-B (La)
Anti SS-A (Ro)
Schirmer's Test
Salivary Gland Biopsy
Treatment
Symptomatic Treatment
Complications
Lymphoma
Other
Sicca Syndrome
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4 mins
Anticentromere Antibodies
Autoimmune Disorders
CREST Syndrome (Limited Scleroderma)
Diffuse Scleroderma
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49 secs
Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Increased CK (CPK)
Increased Aldolase
Anti-JO-1 Antibody
Anti-SRP Antibody
Antinuclear Antibody
Abnormal EMG
Biopsy
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Methotrexate
Azathioprine
Treatment For Resistant Disease
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Cyclophosphamide
Rituximab
Calcineurin Inhibitors
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2 mins
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis) Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Positive Antimitochondrial Antibodies
Increased Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK-P)
Increased Cholesterol
Treatment
Ursodiol
Liver Transplant
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2 mins
Microscopic Polyangiitis
Pathophysiology
Necrotizing Small Vessel Vasculitis
Signs and Symptoms
Lungs, Kidneys, and Skin Commonly Affected
Palpable purpura
Rapidly Progressive Cresentic Glomerulonephritis
Diagnosis
Lesions are Same Age
Non-granulomatous
Minimal Nasopharyngeal Involvement
P-ANCA
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Cyclophosphamide
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2 mins
Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome)
Pathophysiology
Granulomatous Vasculitis
Signs and Symptoms
Sinusitis
Skin Lesions
Peripheral Neuropathy
Asthma
GI Disease
Heart Disease
Kidney Failure
Diagnosis
Eosinophilia
p-ANCA
Treatment
Corticosteroids
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3 mins
Ulcerative Colitis Associations
Associations
Toxic Megacolon
Colorectal Carcinoma
Anterior Uveitis
Pyoderma Gangrenosum
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
P-ANCA
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1 min
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Labs and Treatment
Labs
Increased Conjugated Bilirubin
Increased ALK-P
Increased IgM
Associated Pathologies
Ulcerative Colitis
Cholangiocarcinoma
Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis
Treatment
Liver Transplant
Stent
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2 mins
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegeners) Characteristics
Pathophysiology
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis
Vasculitis
Necrotizing
C ANCA
Lungs And Upper Airway
Crescentic Glomerulonephritis
Treatment
Cyclophosphamide
Corticosteroids
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1 min
Bullous Pemphigoid
Linear Deposits of IgG
Affects Hemidesmosomes
Epidermal Basement Membrane
Tense Blisters on Skin
Nikolsky Negative
Contain Eosinophils
Rarely Affect Oral Mucosa
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2 mins
Pemphigus Vulgaris
Pathophysiology
Autoantibodies against desmosomes
Symptoms
Flaccid Bullae on Skin
Oral Mucosa Involvement
Intraepidermal Acantholysis
Fluid Loss
Infection
Nikolsky Positive
Diagnosis
Biopsy showing Autoantibodies
Treatment
IVIG and Plasmapheresis
Oral Steroids
Immunosuppressants
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2 mins
Anti-desmoglein Antibodies
Pemphigus Vulgaris
Flaccid Blisters
Skin and Oral Mucosa
Positive Nikolsky's Sign
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59 secs
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Symptoms
Hypothyroidism with Bouts of Hyperthyroidism
Enlarged, Nontender Thyroid
Mechanism
Autoimmune
Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO)
Anti-Thyroglobulin
Lab Findings
Hurthle Cells
Lymphoid Follicles
Associations
HLA-DR5 and HLA-DR3
Increased Risk Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
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2 mins
Graves' Disease Characteristics
Women 20-40 years old
Pathophysiology
Anti-TSH Receptor Antibodies
Symptoms
Ophthalmopathy
Exophthalmos
Hyperthyroidism
Goiter
Pretibial Myxedema
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1 min
Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Blunting of Intestinal Villi
Lymphocytes in Lamina Propria
Anti-gliadin Antibodies (IgA)
Anti-endomysial Antibodies (IgA)
Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies (IgA)
Treatment
Gluten-Free Diet
Corticosteroids
Dapsone
Complications
Intestinal Lymphoma
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2 mins
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency Causes
Causes
Vegans
Pernicious Anemia
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Malabsorption
Sprue
Enteritis
Crohn's Disease
Diphyllobothrium latum
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4 mins
Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies
Glomerulonephritis
Goodpasture's Disease
Linear immunofluorescence
Hemoptysis
Hematuria
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1 min

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