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Gastrointestinal System/Nutrition | Physician Assistant School Study Aid


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Nutritional and Vitamin Disorders
12 Picmonics to Learn | 30 mins

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Vitamin A (Retinol) Function and Deficiency
Mechanism
Retinol
Constituent of Visual Pigments
Differentiation of Epithelial Cells into Specialized Tissue
Signs and Symptoms
Night Blindness
Dry Skin
Considerations
Used to Treat Measles
Antioxidant
2 mins
Vitamin A (Retinol) Toxicity
Signs and Symptoms
Alopecia
Vision Changes
Headache
Skin Changes
Hyperlipidemia
Hepatotoxicity
Arthralgias
Teratogen
Cleft palate
Cardiac Abnormalities
3 mins
Beriberi (Thiamine Deficiency)
Thiamine deficiency
Dry beriberi
Polyneuritis
Muscle wasting
Wet beriberi
Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Edema
50 secs
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency
Deficiency From Isoniazid
Deficiency From Oral Contraceptives
Seizures
Hyperirritability
Peripheral Neuropathy
Sideroblastic Anemia
3 mins
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Mechanism and Deficiency
Mechanism
Cobalamin
Large reserve pool in the liver
Homocysteine to methionine
Methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA
Deficiency Signs and Symptoms
Macrocytic Megaloblastic Anemia
Hypersegmented Neutrophils
Neurologic defects
Posterior column
Lateral corticospinal tract
Spinocerebellar tract
5 mins
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency Causes
Causes
Vegans
Pernicious Anemia
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Malabsorption
Sprue
Enteritis
Crohn's Disease
Diphyllobothrium latum
4 mins
Vitamin C Mechanism and Deficiency
Mechanism
Ascorbic acid
Antioxidant
Protects Against Free Radicals
Keeps Iron in Reduced State
Hydroxylation of Proline and Lysine
Necessary for Dopamine B Hydroxylase
Deficiency Signs and Symptoms
Scurvy
Swollen gums
Bruising
Poor Wound Healing
Hemarthrosis
Perifollicular Hemorrhages
Anemia
4 mins
Vitamin D Deficiency
Signs & Symptoms
Rickets in children
Bending bones
Rachitic rosary
Breast milk has decreased vitamin D
Osteomalacia in adults
Tetany from Hypocalcemia
1 min
Vitamin D Toxicity
Kidney stones
Metastatic calcification of the kidney
Loss of appetite
Abdominal Pain
Sarcoidosis
1 min
Vitamin E Deficiency
Mechanism
Antioxidant
Protects Erythrocytes
Protects from Free Radical Damage
Deficiency Signs and Symptoms
Hemolytic Anemia
Posterior Column
Spinocerebellar Tract
2 mins
Zinc Deficiency
Mechanism
Used in Over 100 Enzymes
Zinc Finger Formation
Signs and Symptoms
Delayed Wound Healing
Hypogonadism
Decreased Adult Hair
Dysgeusia
Anosmia
Perioral Rash
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
Increased Risk in Patients with Cirrhosis
2 mins
Folate Deficiency
Causes
Macrocytic Anemia
Megaloblastic Anemia
Caused by
Malabsorption
Dietary
Tea and Toast
Alcoholics
Medication-induced
Methotrexate
Trimethoprim
Increased Requirement
Hemolytic Anemia
Pregnancy
2 mins

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