Occupational Therapist (OT)
Psychosocial Approaches
Model of Human Occupation (MOHO)

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Model of Human Occupation (MOHO)

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Model of Human Occupation (MOHO)

MOHO is a top-down approach intended for children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly population experiencing difficulty in their occupational life and is applicable across a lifespan. It can be applied to diverse groups with chronic pain, children with ADHD, patients with TBI, clients with dementia, patients living with AIDS, and adolescents with mental illness.Occupation is assessed based on the three components of volition, habituation, and performance capacity, within the environmental context. Humans are conceptualized as being made up of three interrelated components: volition, habituation, and performance capacity. Volition refers to the motivation for occupation. Habituation refers to the process by which occupation is organized into patterns or routines. And performance capacity refers to the physical and mental abilities that underlie skilled occupational performance.
Top-Down Approach
Top-Down Convertible

The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) is a top-down approach. This is a holistic approach in which the therapist assesses a client’s functional engagement, skills, and contexts in relation to their activities of daily living or occupations and then develops a treatment plan based on their ability to participate in those occupations instead of looking at their deficits.


Volition refers to the individual’s motivation for occupation. It happens in the cycle of anticipating what to do, when to do it, how to do it, and the reaction to the experience.

Personal Causation
Personal Causeway

Causation refers to determining one’s strengths and weaknesses. It points out thoughts and feelings about an individual’s abilities to complete or perform daily activities with effectiveness.


Values are one’s beliefs and commitments about what is right, important, and meaningful to perform. The principles, standards, and qualifications that are part of the client, what motivates them to continue with certain actions and the essence of what thrives a person to complete a certain conduct is what is called values.


Interests are developed through experiences of pleasure and gratification as a result of engagement in preferred occupations.


Habituation refers to the process one organizes actions into routines and patterns. These patterns of actions are mandated by habits and roles, which are the ones that shape an individual’s routines.


Habits are learned ways of completing preferred occupations that are performed automatically. Habits operate hand in hand with context and environment in order to complete familiar activities. Habits influence individual behaviors, routine actions, and time to perform daily activities.


Roles are social and cultural norms that define one’s identity and provide responsibilities and obligations such as mother, father, student, worker, and daughter.

Performance Capacity
Performing Capacity

Performance capacity refers to the physical and mental abilities that underlie skilled occupational performance. It is one’s mental and physical abilities and how those abilities are put into practice and experienced in occupational performance. Performance capacity is the ability to complete occupations based on the status of musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiopulmonary, and other systems that are necessary to complete any actions.

Physical Environment
Physics House

Physical environment refers to objects and spaces together consisting of a physical environment.

Social Environment
Social-book House

Social environment refers to both tasks and social groups.


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