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Cocaine Intoxication Assessment

Cocaine with Toxic-green-glow Assess-man
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Cocaine is a potent central nervous system stimulant that stimulates behavioral and psychomotor agitation. Symptoms symptoms of cocaine abuse include euphoria, delusions, mydriasis, hallucinations, and agitation. Additional manifestations include hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and hyperthermia, which may result in seizure activity. Nasal septum perforation is common with chronic cocaine use.
10 KEY FACTS
Euphoria
U-flowers

Increased alertness and a decrease in fatigue may lead to feelings of euphoria. The individual may become hyperactive, restless, and talkative. They may develop insomnia and increased motor activity such as tremors.

Delusions
Doll-illusionist

Cocaine use may create subjective feelings of great mental ability and muscular power. The individual may develop delusions and experience paranoid ideations related to excessive CNS stimulation.

Mydriasis
Meter-eyes

Cocaine may overstimulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and activate the muscles to initiate the fight-or-flight response. Mydriasis, or pupil dilation, is a manifestation of this response related to cocaine abuse.

Hallucinations
Halloween-hallucination

Chronic use of cocaine overstimulates the CNS and may result in auditory or visual hallucinations. Cocaine-induced psychoses include paranoid delusions of constantly being followed and watched.

Agitation
Agitated-agent

Excessive CNS stimulation caused by cocaine abuse causes the individual to become easily agitated and demonstrate impaired judgment.

Hypertension
Hiker-BP

Since cocaine increases the myocardial demand for oxygen, the individual abusing cocaine may develop tachycardia in attempt to supply enough oxygen to the heart. Severe vasoconstriction may occur and cause hypertension as the blood tries to flow through the constricted blood vessels.

Arrhythmias
Broken Arrhythmia-drum

Cocaine may induce chest angina and cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation. Since cardiac arrhythmias disrupt the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart and the body, cocaine overdose may lead to sudden cardiac death.

Hyperthermia
Hiker-thermometer

Compared with amphetamines, chronic use of cocaine leads to hyperthermia/hyperpyrexia or extreme elevation of body temperature exceeding 106°F. The body's temperature regulation mechanism sets the body temperature above normal. As a result, the body generates heat to achieve this temperature and diaphoresis commonly occurs.

Seizures
Caesar

The individual abusing cocaine may experience seizure activity related to increased body temperature. Although most seizures associated with cocaine abuse are self-limiting, they may lead to complications such as myocardial infarction and intracranial hemorrhage.

Nasal Septum Perforation
Nose Scepter Perforation

Snorting is a common mode of ingesting cocaine. Chronic cocaine snorting  disrupts the nasal mucous membranes and causes nasal rhinitis. Individuals consistently snorting cocaine may develop pulmonary hemorrhage and nasal septum ulceration and perforation and loss of the sense of smell.

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