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Risperidone (Risperdal)

Whisper-bone
Picmonic
Risperidone (Risperdal) is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to manage schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Because it has a high affinity for dopamine and serotonin receptors, it is effective in treating the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms, or drug induced movements, and akathisia, or generalized restlessness. Patients can also display agitation. Risperidone is available in oral forms, but also has a long acting depot form that can be given IM every two weeks.
11 KEY FACTS
MECHANISM
Atypical Antipsychotic
A-tipi Ant-tie Psychiatrist

This drug is a second generation atypical antipsychotic medication, which is used to treat psychiatric conditions. This class of drug is preferred over typical antipsychotics, like haloperidol, because it is less likely to cause extrapyramidal motor control issues. Risperidone works by blocking dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors in the central nervous system.

INDICATIONS
Schizophrenia
Sketchy-fern

Risperidone is indicated for managing schizophrenia and is effective in treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This is because of the drug’s binding affinity for both dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors in the brain.

Bipolar Mania
Bipolar-bear with Maniac

This med is used to control the manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder, otherwise known as bipolar mania. Furthermore, risperidone can be used to manage the inappropriate behavior and irritability associated with autistic disorder.

Autism-Associated Irritability
Otter aggravated at autism puzzle

Risperidone is the only medication currently approved for irritability that is associated with autism. It is especially favorable due to the depot (long-acting) injectable form that is available.

SIDE EFFECTS
Extrapyramidal Symptoms
X-Pyramid

This medication, like other antipsychotics, is associated with the possible development of extrapyramidal symptoms. These are drug-induced movement disorders that can include tardive dyskinesia (jerky, irregular movements), akathisia (motor restlessness), dystonia (continuous spasms and contractions), and Parkinson’s-like symptoms.

Hyperprolactinemia
Hiker-lactating

Inhibition of dopamine causes an increase of prolactin leading to possible gynecomastia (enlarged breasts) & galactorrhea.

Gynecomastia
Man-boobs

Gynecomastia is the abnormal development of breast tissue in males and is related to the transient increase in prolactin that this medication causes.

Galactorrhea
Lactating and pumping breast milk

Due to increased prolactin levels caused by this medication, some patients may experience spontaneous milk production or expulsion from the breast.

Amenorrhea
Amen-tampon

Due to hormone imbalances in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis, risperidone may cause patients to experience a lack of menstruation. Some patients may also experience fertility issues.

Prolonged QT
Prolonged QT-heart

Prolongation of the QT interval in patients is commonly associated with almost all atypical antipsychotic medications. This prolongation may lead to serious cardiac manifestations, and should be used with caution in patients with underlying disorders. Overall, Risperidone has a lower risk of cardiac abnormalities relative to other neuroleptics.

CONSIDERATIONS
Intramuscular Long Acting (Depot) Form
Long Syringe In-muscle

There is a long-acting intramuscular form of the drug which is given every two weeks, known as the depot form. Patients who may have trouble with a regular oral routine may be given risperidone in this form. They should take the oral form for 3-4 weeks until the maximum effect is reached, and then they can be transitioned to the depot form.

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