Master Triage with Picmonic for Nursing RN

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Triage

Tree-race
Picmonic
Simple triage and rapid treatment (START) is a triage system used by first responders to quickly sort patients on the extent of their injury by identifying each with triage tags. The triage tags are color coded to indicate the priority and level of care. Red tags are first priority and considered immediate and critical. Yellow tags are second in priority which are delayed yet still urgent. Green tags are third in priority and are considered minor compared to the higher priority tag due to the patient’s ability to speak and walk. Black tags are unfortunately the fourth and final priority in the START triage system and are given to those that are is Expectant/Deceased. 
10 KEY FACTS
Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment (START)
Starting Line

Simple triage and rapid treatment (START) is a triage system used by first responders to quickly sort patients into transport categories based on the extent of their injury by identifying each of them with triage tags.

TAGS
Red: Immediate (Critical)
Red Tree Immediately-ate by Critical-crickets

Red tags are first priority and considered immediate and critical. They are generally applied to patients who require immediate treatment or they will not survive. Examples include trauma victims, clients with chest pain, severe respiratory distress or cardiac arrest, limb amputation, acute neurological deficits.

Yellow: Delayed (Urgent)
Yellow Tree with Delayed-sign and Urgent Alarm

Yellow tags are second in priority which are delayed yet still urgent. They are typically used to identify patients with injuries requiring medical treatment, but who have injuries that are not life-threatening. Patients labeled as urgent are not in the immediate or minor categories. These patients are generally non-ambulatory. Examples include open fracture with a distal pulse and large wounds.

Green: Minor (Ambulatory)
Green Tree with Miner Walking

Green tags are third in priority and are considered minor compared to the higher priority tag due to the patient’s ability to speak and walk. They indicate non-life-threatening injuries. It is given to anyone with an injury that can be managed with first aid. These patients require reassessment every 1-2 hours.

Black: Deceased (Expired)
Black Tree with Death and Expired-sticker

Black tags are unfortunately the fourth and final priority in the START triage system. They identify patients who are found to be deceased. In these cases, usually no ventilations are present after the airway is opened.

STEP 1: MOVEMENT
Ability to Walk
Walking

The first step of triage is to clear out all ambulatory patients. Ask victims to move to a designated safe area. Those who respond are given a green tag.

STEP 2: RESPIRATIONS
Spontaneous Breathing
Spartan Breathing

The second step of the START Triage is to examine the respiratory effort of the patients. If the patient is not breathing, you will need to open their airway.
If they do not breathe after two attempts to open their airway, you will tag them as with a black tag indicating deceased.

Respiratory Rate
Lungs Rate-timer

If the patient breathes more than 30 breaths/minute, they should be tagged as red (immediate). If their inspirations are less than 30 breaths/minute, you will move onto step 3.

STEP 3: PERFUSION
Check Circulation
Check with Circulation-symbol

The third step is to check for pulses/perfusion. This is achieved by feeling for the victim’s radial pulse, or checking capillary refill. If the radial pulse is absent, you will tag them as red (immediate), if the radial pulse is present, you will move onto step 4.
If capillary refill is more than 2 seconds, you will tag them as red (immediate). If their capillary refill is less than 2 seconds, you will move onto step 4.

STEP 4: MENTAL STATUS
Mental Status
Brain

The final step of triage is to check a patient’s mental status by giving a simple command, such as “can you squeeze my hand?”. If no response, tag Red (Immediate). If they obey the command, tag as yellow (delayed).

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