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Anaphylaxis Intervention

Anvil-axes
Picmonic
Anaphylaxis is a life threatening Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction characterized by a widespread immune response after exposure to an antigen which initiates mast cell degranulation releasing chemical mediators like histamine. These widespread presentations include systemic vasodilation with decreased cardiac output as well as bronchoconstriction. Anaphylaxis intervention typically consists of first assessing the airway and oxygen needs. Patients with anxiety may be reassured. Patients should be placed in a supine position and given methylprednisone, epinephrine, and diphenhydramine. Patients should also be given a medical alert bracelet and educated on the importance of wearing it.
7 KEY FACTS
INTERVENTION
Assess Airway and Oxygen Needs
O2-tank Assessing Airway

Apply oxygen as prescribed using high flow oxygen via non-rebreather mask. Dyspnea, wheezing, and stridor are typical signs of anaphylactic shock. Prepare for the possibility of intubation or tracheotomy and have the equipment available if the patient goes into respiratory arrest.

Reassure Patient with Anxiety
Reassuring Patient with Anxiety-bag

Patients with anaphylactic shock typically have a feeling of “impending doom.” Decreasing anxiety will help the patient focus on breathing and following commands

Supine Position
Spine Position

Patients experiencing anaphylaxis may be placed in a supine position. This can aid in perfusion and oxygenation.

Methylprednisolone (Solu-medrol)
Metal-predator-drone

Methylprednisone (Solu-medrol) helps decrease the inflammatory response of the body. It will also decrease bronchial edema.

Epinephrine
Epi-pen

This drug is used during anaphylaxis because of its vasoconstrictive effects, reversing angioedema and hypotension. Stimulation of B2 receptors causes bronchodilation and reduces the release of inflammatory mediators. Epinephrine auto-injectors typically contain a dose of 0.3mg for IM administration. IV administration of epinephrine consists of a single dose of 0.1-0.25mg.

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
Dolphin-hydra

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), 25-50mg IV push, is a histamine antagonist medication and should be administered every 15 minutes as ordered until the patient responds.

Medical Alert Bracelet
Medical Alert Bracelet

Educate the patient about the importance of wearing a medical alert tag identifying their potential allergens and anaphlaxis.

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