Master Infectious Mononucleosis with Picmonic for Nursing RN

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Infectious Mononucleosis

Monkey-nuclear
Picmonic
This is a contagious disease that typically affects teenagers and young adults and is sometimes referred to as the "kissing disease" as it is spread through saliva. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis. It can be transmitted via oral secretions, blood transfusions, organ transplant, and sexual contact. Most cases of the disease are self-limiting and uncomplicated.
10 KEY FACTS
MECHANISM
Herpes-like Viral Infection
Herpes-harp Virus

This virus infection typically spreads via oral to oral contact and is commonly called the “kissing disease.” It is caused most commonly caused by the Epstein-Barr virus also called Human Herpes Virus 4.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Fatigue
Sleepy-guy

Generalized fatigue, feeling tired, or malaise can persist for 2-4 weeks.

Fever
Fever-beaver

A low grade fever is common with viral infections.

Sore Throat
Spitting Flames

This disorder is often mistaken and treated as a “strep” type upper respiratory infection (URI) as symptoms are similar.

Head and Body Aches
Head and Body-egg-lumps

Patients experience a feeling of general malaise for several weeks after infection with complaints of head and body aches. 

Hepatomegaly and Splenomegaly
Liver-balloon and Spleen-balloon

Classically, patients present with an enlarged spleen and liver. It is extremely important to advise patients with this virus to AVOID ALL contact sports due to the possibility of splenic rupture.

Swollen Lymph Nodes in Neck and Armpits
Swollen Limes in Neck and Armpits

Swollen lymph glands in the neck and armpits are noted on assessment. The tonsils can be enlarged and appear red. In some instances, the tonsils may be covered with a membrane (similar to what is seen in diphtheria cases) and can lead to airway compromise due to swelling.

Rash
Rash

Most often this virus is mistaken for an upper respiratory bacterial type strep infection and is treated with medications like ampicillin or amoxicillin. Patients with infectious mononucleosis treated with ampicillin often develop a full body rash. New studies show that many patients who developed this rash have incorrectly believed they are allergic to penicillin type medications.

CONSIDERATIONS
Suppressed Immune Response
Suppressed Moon Responding

This may be an issue for some time after the disease; so patients should avoid live vaccines until several months after disappearance of symptoms.

Positive Monospot
Positive Monkey-spot test

Diagnosis of this virus is with the “Monospot” test which detects heterophilic antibodies in the patient’s serum.

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