This is the most common cause of croup, but inflammation of these airways is also caused by adenovirus, RSV, influenza A&B, and mycoplasma pneumoniae.
The age of onset of this disorder is after 3 months of age but usually before 3 years.
Symptoms usually present with a sudden onset and at night.
Croup is classically identified by a loud seal-like barking cough due to inflammation of all of the airways.
Constriction of the airways due to inflammation causes decreased airway diameter. This causes a loud high pitched inspiratory stridor. Children without stridor are often treated at home.
Treatments are aimed at decreasing inflammation and cool humidified air has long been used as a treatment, although its effectiveness has not been completely scientifically documented.
Steroid medications like dexamethasone are given to decrease inflammatory processes of tissues in the body as treatments are aimed to decrease inflammation.
A specialized type of epinephrine named for its chemical properties is given in an aerosolized form. This medication is indicated for stridor or airway constriction due to inflammation, except epiglottis.
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