Around the sixth week of gestation, the cervix softens and appears velvety; this is considered Goodell’s sign of pregnancy.
Due to increased vascularity of the pregnant woman, the cervix should become a bluish/violet color and this change is known as the Chadwick sign. It typically occurs around 6-8 weeks gestation.
Hegar's sign often occurs at around 6 weeks gestation due to hormonal effect which causes a softening of the lower uterus/cervical isthmus. Prior to more modern urine and blood tests to detect pregnancy, Hegar's sign would be appreciated by inserting two fingers of one hand into the vagina to palpate the lower uterine segment while applying manual pressure externally to the abdomen.
Serum and urine tests identify whether the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is present in the samples. If so, these tests are considered positive and are a probable sign of pregnancy.
Braxton Hicks contractions are normal, irregular, non painful contractions that promote uterine blood flow. This usually occurs around 4 months gestation.
Around the 16th to 18th week of gestation, the fetus can be palpated by pressing a finger into the vagina and tapping gently. This action causes the fetus to move upward and then move back downwards to tap on the finger. This is known as ballottement.
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