Aztreonam has a limited or narrow antimicrobial spectrum, as it is only effective against gram-negative aerobic bacteria.
Aztreonam is a bactericidal antibiotic. These drugs inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding to specific proteins and weakening the bacterial cell wall. The disruption of the cell wall's integrity causes bacterial cell lysis and death.
Aztreonam is not a broad spectrum antibiotic and is only effective against gram-negative infections.
Due to its limited spectrum, aztreonam is not effective against infections caused by gram-positive or anaerobic bacteria.
Neutropenia is characterized by an abnormally low white blood cell count. Blood dyscrasias, such as neutropenia, may occur in patients taking aztreonam.
Patients may experience pain at the injection site. Thrombophlebitis, or inflammation of the vein due to a blood clot (thrombus), may also occur.
Aztreonam is structurally different from penicillin, and is generally safe for use in individuals with a penicillin allergy, without the risk of cross sensitivity. Important to note, some patients allergic to penicillins may exhibit hypersensitivity reactions to aztreonam. Obtain a thorough history prior to initiating therapy.
Combining aztreonam with an aminoglycoside antibiotic, such as gentamicin or tobramycin, has been shown to have a synergistic effect against certain microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Although aztreonam is typically administered IV or IM, it can also be administered via a nebulizer. This route of administration is commonly used to treat respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis.
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