Beat The Heat SAVE 25% NOW
Registered Nurse (RN)
Medical Surgical Nursing & Pathophysiology
Kidney Injury & Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic Kidney Disease Late Symptoms Assessment

Master Chronic Kidney Disease Late Symptoms Assessment with Picmonic for Nursing RN

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing.

Chronic Kidney Disease Late Symptoms Assessment

Recommended Picmonics

picmonic thumbnail
Chronic Kidney Disease Early Symptoms Assessment
picmonic thumbnail
Chronic Kidney Disease Interventions
picmonic thumbnail
picmonic thumbnail
Loop Diuretics

Chronic Kidney Disease Late Symptoms Assessment

Crone Kidney Diseased with Late-moon and Assess-man
Chronic kidney disease is the permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over months or years. In patients with late or end stage chronic kidney disease, glomerular filtration rate drops below 10 milliliter per minute (mL/min). When kidney function continues to decline, waste products continue to accumulate in the body, causing complications such as uremia, metabolic acidosis, cardiac arrhythmias, anemia, pruritus, decreased urine output, edema, and central nervous system depression.
Metabolic Acidosis
Metal-ball Acidic-lemon

Damaged kidneys are unable to produce adequate bicarbonate necessary to maintain acid-base balance in the body. The lack of bicarbonate (base) leads to metabolic acidosis. Patients with metabolic acidosis may attempt to compensate with Kussmaul breathing. This rapid, deep and labored breathing pattern is an attempt to blow off excess carbon dioxide (acid) to return the patient to a state of acid-base balance.

Severe Uremia
Severed U-rainbow

Severe uremia usually develops when a patient’s glomerular filtration rate reaches less than 10mL/min. Inadequate renal filtration causes an accumulation of waste products, such as urea, in the blood. Severe uremia can cause abnormal bleeding, changes in mental status, nausea, vomiting, and pruritus.

Broken Arrhythmia-drum

When renal filtration is compromised, excess potassium is not excreted, and levels can become dangerously elevated. When serum potassium levels are elevated, cardiac arrhythmias can occur.


Both sodium retention and reduced excretion of fluid due to renal damage can cause fluid retention. Retention of fluid can lead to complications such as edema, and worsening of hypertension. Patients should be monitored for signs of fluid overload.

CNS Depression
Deflated CNS-brain

Electrolyte imbalances and the accumulation of waste products in the body can lead to central nervous system (CNS) depression in patients with chronic kidney disease. CNS depression can cause patients to feel weak, dizzy, or disoriented.


Damaged kidneys do not produce enough erythropoietin to stimulate adequate red blood cell production. As a result, patients with chronic kidney disease may become anemic. These patients also have a tendency to bleed due to impaired platelet aggregation.


A decrease in glomerular filtration rate ultimately leads to a decrease in urine output. Oliguria occurs when a patient produces less than 400mL of urine per day. As the kidneys continue to fail, urine output may continue to decrease, until a patient becomes anuric, or produces less than 100mL of urine in 24 hours.


The accumulation of waste products in the body, due to reduced renal filtration, can lead to intense itching. Calcium and phosphorus deposits in the skin are thought to be one of the primary causes of pruritus in patients with chronic renal disease. In rare cases, a condition called uremic frost can develop when blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels are exceptionally elevated (over 200mg/dL). In this condition, urea forms crystals on the skin.

End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
End of Stage Kidney Diseased

ESRD is the final stage of renal failure in which dialysis or a transplant is needed in order for the patient to survive; the kidneys can no longer function on their own.

GFR < 15mL/min
Gopher < F-15

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a value that describes how efficiently the kidneys are working. In patients diagnosed with ESRD, GFR is less than 15 mL/min.


Take the Chronic Kidney Disease Late Symptoms Assessment Quiz

Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge.

It's worth every penny

Our Story Mnemonics Increase Mastery and Retention

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Unforgettable characters with concise but impactful videos (2-4 min each)

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Ace Your Registered Nurse (RN) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,910,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Registered Nurse (RN) student study app.

Picmonic for Registered Nurse (RN) covers information that is relevant to your entire Registered Nurse (RN) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer your NCLEX®-RN, Hesi, ATI, TEAS test, Kaplan exams, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Registered Nurse (RN) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.