Ace Your Understanding Pathophysiology, 7th Ed., Huether, McCance, Brashers, & Rote Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Registered Nurse (RN) Students

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Understanding Pathophysiology, 7th Ed., Huether, McCance, Brashers, & Rote | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid


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15 - Pain, Temperature, Sleep, and Sensory Function
13 Picmonics to Learn | 25 mins

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Pain Assessment
Types of Pain
Acute Pain
Chronic Pain
OPQRST Mnemonic
Onset
Provoking or Palliative
Quality
Radiation
Severity
Timing
Nursing Considerations
Subjective Findings
Objective Findings
Reassessment of Pain
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2 mins
Vital Signs - Adult
Temperature (96.8-100.4 Degrees F) (36-38 Degrees C)
Rectal - Remove 1 Degree From Measurement
Axillary - Add 1 Degree to Measurement
Respiration (12-20)
Oxygen Saturation (94%-100%)
Pulse (60-100)
Blood Pressure (<120/80)
Pain
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2 mins
Fever
Flushed skin, warm to touch
Chills
Sweating
Change in LOC
Provide adequate fluids
Monitor Electrolytes and Fluid
Monitor vital signs, esp temperature
Remove excess clothing and blankets
Sponge bath with tepid water
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2 mins
Stages of Hypothermia
Mild
32 to 35°C (90 to 95°F)
Shivering
Moderate
28 to 32°C (82 to 90°F)
Obvious Motor Impairment
Slowed Thinking
Severe
< 28°C (< 82°F)
Shivering Stops
Paradoxical Undressing
Arrhythmias
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3 mins
Hypothermia Interventions
Remove From Environment
Remove Wet Clothing
Passive Rewarming
Warm Clothing
Active Rewarming
Heated Blankets
Warm IV Solutions
Heated Oxygen
Warm Gastric Lavage
Considerations
Warm Trunk BEFORE Extremities
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2 mins
Malignant Hyperthermia vs. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome vs. Serotonin Syndrome
Autonomic Instability
Muscle Rigidity
Malignant Hyperthermia
Ryanodine Receptor 1 Mutation
Inhaled Anesthetics
Succinylcholine
Dantrolene
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Antidopaminergic Medications
Hyporeflexia
Myoglobinuria
Dantrolene
Serotonin Syndrome
Serotonergic Medications
Hyperreflexia
Clonus
Cyproheptadine
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3 mins
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Cause/Mechanism
Narrowed or Obstructed Air Passage
Assessment
Apnea
Loud Snoring
Startle Response
Daytime Drowsiness
Interventions
Positional Therapy
Oral Appliance
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
Surgery
Considerations
Weight Loss
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3 mins
Eye
Characteristics
Sclera
Cornea
Iris
Lens
Ciliary Muscles
Optic Nerve
Rods
Cones
Retina
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1 min
Cataract
Mechanism
Age-related
Assessment
No Pain
Cloudy Opaque Lens
Decreased Visual Acuity
Occurs Gradually
Treatment
Surgery
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1 min
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Mechanism
Dry (nonexudative)
Wet (exudative)
Signs and Symptoms
Scotomas
Blurred, darkened vision
Loss of central vision
Distortion of vision
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
Low-vision assistive devices
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2 mins
Meniere's Disease
Mechanism
Excess Endolymph
Signs and Symptoms
Tinnitus
One-sided Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Vertigo
Nausea and Vomiting
Considerations
Meclizine (Antivert)
Low Salt Diet
Surgery
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2 mins
Otitis Media Assessment
Red or Bulging Tympanic Membrane
Ear Pain
Pulling at Ear
Fever
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
More Common in Young Children
Eustachian Tube Narrower
Conductive Hearing Loss
Smoking Increases Risk
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2 mins
Otitis Media Interventions
Antipyretics
Analgesics
Antibiotics
Irrigation
Position on Affected Side
Myringotomy
Tympanostomy Tube
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2 mins

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