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Nursing: A Concept-Based Approach to Learning, Volume 1, 3rd Ed.
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Oxygenation

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Nursing: A Concept-Based Approach to Learning, Volume 1, 3rd Ed. | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid

Oxygenation
31 Picmonics to Learn | 48 mins
Hypoxia (Early Symptoms)
Diaphoresis
Restlessness
Tachypnea
Dyspnea on Exertion
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Decreased Urine Output
Unexplained Fatigue
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1 min
Hypoxia (Late Symptoms)
Cyanosis
Cool, Clammy Skin
Use of Accessory Muscles
Retractions
Hypotension
Arrhythmias
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2 mins
COPD Overview (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview)
Causes
Inhaled Toxins
Smoking
AAT Deficiency
Assessment
Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Asthma
Considerations
Spirometry
Slow Progression
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2 mins
Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space
Assessment
Sudden Dyspnea
Absent or Restricted Movement on Affected Side
Decreased or Absent Breath Sounds on Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tracheal Deviation
Vital Sign Changes
Crepitus
Considerations
High Fowler's Position With Oxygen
Prepare For Chest Tube Placement
Educate High Risk Patients
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2 mins
Lung Sounds - Crackles
Location
Lower Lobes
Description
Fine/Coarse
Sounds Like
Fine: Twisting Hair through Fingers
Coarse: Velcro
Cause
Collapsed Small Airways and Alveoli "Popping Open"
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1 min
Lung Sounds - Rhonchi
Location
Trachea and Bronchi
Description
Low Pitched Rumbling
Sounds Like
Gurgling
Cause
Narrowed Airway
Secretions or Bronchospasm
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49 secs
Lung Sounds - Wheezes
Location
Throughout Lung
Description
High Pitched
Sounds Like
Musical
Cause
Air Moving through Narrowed Airways
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38 secs
Lung Sounds - Pleural Friction Rub
Location
Anterior Lateral Lung
Description
Dry, Rubbing, or Squeaking
Sounds Like
Rubbing a Balloon with Finger
Cause
Inflamed Pleura
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50 secs
Patient Position Overview
Position Techniques
Trochanter Roll
Trapeze Bar
Ankle-Foot Orthotic (AFO) Devices
Positions
Fowlers Position
Supine Position
Trendelenburg
Side-Lying Position
Prone Position
Sims' Position
Nursing Considerations
Reposition q2 Hours/Prevent Skin Breakdown
Confirm Body Alignment
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2 mins
Oxygen Delivery Methods
Nasal Cannula
Simple Face Mask
Non-Rebreather Mask
Venturi-Mask
Safety Precautions
Oxygen In Use Sign
No Electrical Sparks
Six Feet Away from Open Flames
Nursing Considerations
Dry Nasal and Upper Airway Mucosa
Skin Irritation
Home Education
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1 min
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Assessment
Cause
Damaged Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
Assessment
Restlessness
Dyspnea
Refractory Hypoxemia
Decreased PaO2
Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates
Atelectasis
Pulmonary Hypertension
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2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Interventions
Interventions
Closely Monitor Patient
ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)
Oxygen
Assess for O2 Toxicity
Mechanical Ventilation
PEEP
Assess for Pneumothorax
Permissive Hypercapnia
Considerations
High Mortality Rate
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2 mins
Chest Tubes: Management and Care
Confirm suction order
Assessment
Crepitus
Kinking
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Infection
Excessive bubbling
Quick Interventions
If tube dislodges from patient, use petroleum gauze taped 3 ways
If drainage system is damaged, place disconnected drainage tube in sterile water
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1 min
Asthma Assessment
Assessment
Triggers (Cold air, Dander, Dust, Infection, Mold, Pollen, Smoke)
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Tachypnea and Tachycardia
Wheezing
Diaphoresis
Accessory Muscles
Decreased Pulmonary Function Tests
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2 mins
Asthma Implementation and Education
Medication
Oxygen
Corticosteroids
Ipratropium (Anticholinergic)
Albuterol
Implementation
Inhaler/nebulizer
Pulse Oximetry
Pursed Lip Breathing
Education
Carry Inhaler
Rinse Mouth after Inhaler
Identify Trigger (Cold Air, Dander, Dust, Infection, Mold, Pollen, Smoke)
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2 mins
NSAIDs
Indications
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Fever
Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Mechanism of Action
Reversible Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Block Prostaglandin Synthesis
Side Effects
Interstitial Nephritis
Gastric Ulcer
Renal Ischemia
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1 min
Montelukast (Singulair)
Mechanism
Leukotriene Receptor Blocker
Indications
Allergic Rhinitis
Asthma Prophylaxis
Exercise Induced Bronchospasm
Side Effects
Fatigue
Headache
Mood Changes
Suicidal Thoughts
Considerations
Increased Risk of Churg Strauss
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2 mins
Albuterol (Proventil)
Mechanism
Short-Acting Beta-2 Agonist
Indications
Bronchospasm
Asthma
Side Effects
Angina
Tachycardia
Tremor
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1 min
Theophylline (Theo-24)
Mechanism
Bronchial Smooth Muscle Relaxation
Indications
Asthma
Side Effects
Insomnia
Restlessness
Arrhythmias
Seizures
Considerations
Narrow Therapeutic Range
Monitor Plasma Levels
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1 min
Anticholinergics
B.O.AT.S Acronym
Benztropine
Parkinson's Disease
Oxybutynin
Decrease bladder spasms
Atropine
Mydriasis and Cycloplegia
Scopolamine
Motion Sickness
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1 min
Anticholinergics Continued
Drugs
Glycopyrrolate
Reduces Airway Secretions
Ulcer Treatment
Ipratropium
Asthma and C.O.P.D
Dicyclomine
Hyoscyamine
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
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1 min
Atropine
Mechanism of Action
Muscarinic Antagonist
Indications
Bradycardia
Increased Exocrine Secretions
Smooth Muscle Spasms
Side Effects
Tachycardia
Dry Mouth
Urinary Retention
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2 mins
Cromolyn (Mast Cell Stabilizers)
Mechanism
Mast Cell Stabilizer
Indications
Asthma Prophylaxis
Bronchial Inflammation
Allergic Rhinitis
Side Effects
Cough
Bronchospasm
Consideration
Fixed Schedule Administration
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Assessment
Clinical Findings
Chronic Productive Cough
> 3 Months for 2 Years
Increased Mucus Production
Dyspnea
Cyanosis
Wheezes
Complications
Right Side Heart Failure
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Peripheral Edema
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Interventions
Tripod Position
Humidified Oxygen
Pursed Lip Breathing
Increase Fluid Intake
ABGs
Early Detection of Exacerbation
Considerations
Lowest O2 Therapy
Assisted Ventilation
Increased Infection Risk
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2 mins
Emphysema
Mechanism
Hyperinflation and Loss of Elasticity
Assessment
Pursed Lip Breathing
Barrel Chest
Dyspnea on Exertion
Clubbing
Depression and Anxiety
Thin Appearance
Nursing Considerations
CO2 Retention
Low Concentration of O2
High Fowler's Position
High Calorie, High Protein Diet
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2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Assessment
Thickened Mucus
Recurrent Pulmonary Infections
Pulmonary Congestion
Pancreatic Insufficiency
Steatorrhea
Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies
Salty Taste to Skin
Meconium Ileus
Delayed Growth and Poor Weight Gain
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2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Interventions
Bronchodilators
N-Acetylcysteine (Mucolytics)
Inhaled Hypertonic Saline
Early Antibiotics
Dornase Alfa (Mucolytic Agent)
Postural Drainage with Percussion
Fat Soluble Vitamin Supplements
Pancreatic Enzymes with Every Meal
High Protein, High Calorie Diet
Added Dietary Salt
Glucose Monitoring
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2 mins
Chorioamnionitis
Fever
Maternal or fetal tachycardia
Leukocytosis
Foul Odor to Amniotic Fluid
Treatment: Antibiotics
Monitor uterine tenderness, contractions and fetal activity
Monitor maternal vital signs & FHR
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2 mins
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Assessment
Mechanism
Viral Infection Affecting Epithelial Cells
Signs and Symptoms
Begins After a Upper Respiratory Infection
Copious Secretions
Coughing and Sneezing
Wheezing
Otitis Media or Conjunctivitis (Possible Ear or Eye Drainage)
Poor Feeding
Tachypnea
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2 mins
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Interventions
Prophylaxis
Palivizumab (Synagis)
Management
Hospitalization
Contact Precautions
Oxygen
Separate Room
Maintain Fluid Intake
Short-acting Beta-Agonist Bronchodilator
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2 mins

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