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Karch’s Focus on Nursing Pharmacology, 9th Ed., Tucker
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Chapter 23: Antiseizure Agents

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Karch’s Focus on Nursing Pharmacology, 9th Ed., Tucker | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid

Chapter 23: Antiseizure Agents
9 Picmonics to Learn | 16 mins
Phenytoin (Dilantin)
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Tonic-clonic Seizures
Side Effects
Ataxia
Nystagmus
Sedation
Gingival Hyperplasia
Purple Glove Syndrome
Hirsutism
Rash
Anemia
Considerations
Individualized Dosing
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2 mins
P450 Inducer
Griseofulvin
Phenytoin
Carbamazepine
Rifampin
Barbiturates
Chronic Alcohol Use
St. John's Wort
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51 secs
Phenobarbital (Barbiturates)
Mechanism
Barbiturate
Indications
Seizures
Side Effects
Ataxia
Paradoxical Excitement
Fatigue/Drowsiness
Considerations
Monitor Plasma Levels
High Potential for Abuse
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1 min
Diazepam (Valium)
Indications
Anxiety
Seizures and Status Epilepticus
Muscle Spasms
Alcohol Withdrawal
Side Effect/Assessment
Dizziness/Vision Changes
Confusion/Amnesia
Urinary Incontinence
Behavioral Changes
Respiratory Depression
Antidote
Flumazenil (Romazicon)
Nursing Considerations
Fall Precaution
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Ethosuximide (Zarontin)
Indications
First Line Absence Seizure
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Thalamic T-Type Ca2+ Channels
Side Effects
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Fatigue
Diarrhea
Blood Dyscrasias
Considerations
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Valproic Acid (Valproate) Side Effects
V-A-L-P-R-O-A-T-E
Vomiting
Alopecia
Liver Toxicity
Pancreatitis/Pancytopenia
Retain Fat (Weight Gain)
Oedema (Edema)
Appetite Increase
Tremor
Enzyme Inhibitor (P450)
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2 mins
Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
Mechanism
Inactivates Na+ Channels
Indications
Seizures
Bipolar Disorder
Trigeminal Neuralgia
Side Effects
Nystagmus
Ataxia
Hepatotoxicity
Blood Dyscrasias
Water Retention
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Considerations
Avoid Grapefruit Juice
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2 mins
Gabapentin
Primary Indication
Seizure Treatment
Secondary Indications
Peripheral Neuropathy
Postherpetic Neuralgia
Bipolar Disorder
Migraine Prophylaxis
Characteristics
Inhibits Voltage-Gated Ca2+ channels
Designed as a GABA Analog
Side Effects
Ataxia
Sedation
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2 mins
Types of Seizures
Tonic-clonic
Tonic
Clonic
Absence (Petit Mal)
Myoclonic
Atonic
Partial (Focal) Seizure
Simple Partial
Complex Partial
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2 mins

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